APUSH Unit 3 Vocab

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1st Bull Run/Manassas
July 21, 1861: First major battle of the Civil War and a victory for the South, located about 30 miles southwest of Union's Capital. Both armies were left in disarray. It dispelled Northern illusions of a swift victory.
2nd Party System
Political era between 1828 and 1854 and saw rising levels in votes and the major parties were he Democratic led by Jackson and the Whigs led by Clay. Main differences were their views on economic systems.
54th Massachusetts Regiment
one of the first African-American regiments organized to fight for the union in the Civil War, led an attack on Ft. Wagner near Charleston, SC in 1863.
Abraham Lincoln
16th POTUS, elected in 1860, Republican party. He promoted equal rights for African Americans in the famed Lincoln- Douglas debates, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation and set in motion the Civil War, he was determined to preserve the Union, was assassinated by Booth in 1865. Antietam.
Adams-Onis Treaty
1819 Treaty: Purchase eastern Florida in exchange for Spain's claim to Texas. Both agreed to compromise on a western boundary for Louisiana.
Sept. 17 1862, first major battle on Northern Soil, bloodiest single day battle. Confederates tried to invade, but Union won, Union used this as an opportunity demonstrated prowess of Union Army (wartime propaganda), forestalling foreign intervention, gave Lincoln the victory he needed to introduce the Emancipation Proclamation.
Appomattox Court House
April 9th, 1865: Robert E. Lee surrendered the Confederate army to Ulysses S. Grant. Grant let confederates keep swords and horses and return home if they layed down arms and signed paroles.
Bear Flag Republic
June 1846: Revolt against Mexican government by American settlers led by John Fremont in CA. At the same time, John Sloan and his naval forces declared the CA would now be a part of the US. Fully secured control of CA in 1847.
Black Codes
1865: Laws enacted in the south after the Civil War. Restricted recently freed slaves such as denying ex-slave civil rights, punishment for vague crimes, failing to have labor contracts, overall trying to put slavery back into place. Angered republicans when Andrew Jackson didn't do anything, and racial segregation and hostility continued in the south.
Bleeding Kansas
1854: Thousands of settlers rushed into Kansas, testing the idea popular sovereignty, led to outbreaks of violent geurrilla warfare between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces. First fight between Americans regarding slavery.
Border States
Slave states that didn't secede from the Union when the Confederacy was formed. Included Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky, later West VA. Provided advantages for the North such as large populations, manufacturers, and strategic locations.
Charles Sumner
Senator, abolitionist Republican from Massachusetts who pushed for black suffrage during the Reconstruction. Addressed Bleeding Kansas as "The Crime of Kansas", and attacked the Comp. of 1850, trying to equal the North's benefits to the South's benefits. Pushed for equal access to schools, public transportation, hotels, churches, efforts manifested in the Civil Rights Act of 1875. Got caned by Rep. Brooks of SC for insulting his family member, suffered brain damage.
Compromise of 1850
1850. Set of laws put into place as a result of CA being admitted as a state since the 36/60 line ran right through the territory to determine if CA would be a free or slave state. fugitive slave act, CA is a free state, resolved boundary dispute between New Mexico and texas, abolished slave trade in DC, conqered mexican lands turned into new mexico and Utah, invoked popular sovereignty.
Compromise of 1877
1877: Dealt with the results of the 1876 election. Republican Rutherford Hayes would be presidents and democrats would accept this victory if Republicans removed troops from the South, ended the Reconstruction era.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
1857: Dred Scott argued that he was free because he traveled in free states, and his master made him free. SCOTUS Justice Taney ruled that enslaved or free African Americans were not US citizens and therefore did not have any rights to the constitution (no access to courts). Taney also said that slavery was a states issue, invalidating the Missouri Compromise.
Emancipation Proclamation
Jan. 1, 1863: Abe lincoln proclamation that abolished slavery in states that weren't in the union (confederate states), non-rebelling border states were allowed to keep slaves. Encouraged slaves and ex-slaves to sign up for Union Army. Closed the door for any compromise with the south regarding slavery.
Fort Sumter
Battle in 1861: South Carolina location where Confederate forced fired the first shots, thus beginning the Civil War.
Fugitive Slave Act
1850: required that slaves be returned to their owners even in free states and denied jury trial and rights to testify. Gave federal support to slave catchers. North violated and continued to help slave runaways, while the south supported this. Many slaves were captured and sold back into slavery.
Gadsden Purchase
1853: US bought parts of Mexico what is now souther Arizona and southern New Mexico. Southerners wanted this land in order to build the southern transcontinental railroad; southern expansionists wanted to expand the plantation empire. Showed American belief in Manifest Destiny.
July 1-3, 1863: Turning point battle of Civil War, took away third of Confederate troops, heavily demoralized the south, Confederacy never managed to invade the north after this. Inspired Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address", a huge morale booster for Notherners.
Jim Crow
System of racial segregation laws in the South, lasted a century after the Civil War until 1960s. Main purpose was to legalize the segregation and poor treatment towards African Americans. Ex: segregation in public schools, transportation, and places, as well as water fountains, restaurants, and restrooms. Many facilities intended for POC were severely neglected.
John Brown
abolitionist from NY and OH who commanded a free-state militia. 1856, as revenge for the looting and burning of their town, he and his followers murdered 5 pro-slavery settlers. 1859, attempted a slave revolt to arm slaves in Southern territory. Hung in Harpers Ferry.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854: repealed Missouri Compromise, and created Indian territory into Kansas and Nebraska, left the new territories to decide slavery based on popular sovereignty.
Ku Klux Klan
secret society/domestic terrorists/hate group made up of white supremacists. KKK act of 1871 (aka Enforcement Act) was meant to stop the KKK from targeting black communities and people. Banned the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting because of race.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
1858: Series of debated between Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln during their 1858 Illinois senatorial campaign. Made Lincoln seem smart and clever, and completely destroyed Douglas' chance of running for president. Debated mostly on slavery issues. Lincoln was asked to run as the republican candidate for president (and won that too).
Manifest Destiny
1845: term coined by John O'Sullivan, expressed the idea that Euro-Americans were fated by God to settle in the Americans from the Atlantic to Pacific Oceans. Many Americans saw this as justification to extend American republicanism, and forcing the removal of Native Americans (who they saw as inferior) all because they thought it was a god-given right.
Mexican Cession
1848: After Mexican War, fought for Texas' independence from Mexico, ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe. US Paid 15 mil for the territories of CA, NC, NM, UT, AZ, CO, and WY
Missouri Compromise
1820-21: Devised by Henry Clay, legislation admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a non slave state at the same time to maintain balance between free and slave states. Established the 30/60 line to determined free and slave states for new territories acquired in the LA purchase.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 SCOTUS Case that upheld the constitutionality of segregation laws, saying that as long as blacks were provided with "separate but equal" facilities and treatment, these laws didn't violate the 14th Amendment.
Redeemer Governments
Established in the 1870's, state governments that were taken over by Redeemer democrats (mostly largely former slave owners). This was to "redeem the south" by taking back southern governments in order to maintain white supremacy.
Republican Party
1854: ex-whigs, free-soilers, and abolitionists formed a new party in response to the Kansas-Nebraska act. Lincoln was their presidential candidate for 1860 election. Opposed slavery, envisioned society of independent farmers, artisans, and proprietors. Celebrated middle class values (domesticity, respectability, religious commitment, capitalist enterprise).
Robert E. Lee
General for the confederate troops; defeated in Antietam, defeated in Gettysburg by Gen. Meade, surrendered to Grant. at Appomattox Court House. (originally recommended to Lincoln for the Union army but chose to defend VA which was a confederate state).
labor system of cotton agriculture established after civil war, landlord/planter allows tenant to use the land in exchange for a share of crops. Sharecroppers often returned over half of crops produced so they made little to nothing. This system essentially replaced slavery since the tenant was now tied to the land. "Slavery under another name"
Tenure of Office Act
Presidents could not fire any appointed government officials without approval from Congress. Meant to restrict the power of the Pres (pres Johnson) who was going against the Radical Republicans at the time.
Thaddeus Stevens
Pennsylvania congressman who led the radical republican faction in the HoR. Advocated for abolition and the extension of civil rights to freed blacks.
The Alamo
1836, Fortress in San Antonio where a 400 man Texas garrison was killed by Santa Anna's army (Mexican). Texas gained support from Americans for Texan independence. "Remember the Alamo" to romanticize the deaths of those who fought in Texas.
U.S. Grant
General of the Union Armies, 18th president of the US, achieved international fame as the leading Union general. Led union armies to victory, most important one was Battle of Vicksburg. Gained reputation as a butcher of his own armies because he was willing to accept heavy casualties. Fought war relying on industrial tech and targeting an entire society (ex: in Tennessee, saved an endangered union army using railroads).
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
1852, Harriet Beecher's book that portrayed the horrors of slavery. Heightened Northern support for abolition. So popular and influential that it made Queen Victoria cry, so England didn't support slavery and didn't provide the south with any assistance during the Civil War.
July 4th, 1863: Gen. Grant defeated confederate cities, and later took over Port Hudson, LA, and the Mississippi River. Now, the Confederacy was split into two (LA, AK, and TX were cut off from the rest of the south). One of Grant's major victories.
William T. Sherman
Union Army General despite being from the south. Led the "March to the Sea", where his army consumed, stole, and destroyed everything from his route from Georgia to South Carolina, then to North Carolina.
Wilmot Proviso
1846: Unsuccessful proposal by Pennsylvania Rep. to ban slavery in territory acquired from the Mexican War. Whigs and anti-slavery democrats passed this in the HoR, but proslavery northern senators and southern senators killed the bill in the Senate. Conflict contributed to the Civil War.