Senator, abolitionist Republican from Massachusetts who pushed for black suffrage during the Reconstruction. Addressed Bleeding Kansas as "The Crime of Kansas", and attacked the Comp. of 1850, trying to equal the North's benefits to the South's benefits. Pushed for equal access to schools, public transportation, hotels, churches, efforts manifested in the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
Got caned by Rep. Brooks of SC for insulting his family member, suffered brain damage.