Civil War Study Guide

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40 Terms
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What dominates the political landscape?
Wilmot Proviso
No slavery in territory acquired from Mexico
North Argument
Slave territory adds slave states; no jobs for free workers.
South Argument
Slaves are property under Constitution; fear more free states.
The Gold Rush
Caused California's population to explode
Withdrawal of state from Union
Reasons the south is angry
California possibly being admitted as a free state, Texas's border, the calls to abolish slavery in D.C., North not enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793.
Popular Sovereignty
The right of residents of a territory to vote for or against slavery.
Daniel Webster
Senator from MA, argued with the northern Whigs that slavery shouldn't be extended into the territories, agrees with the Compromise in order to preserve the Union.
John C Calhoun
Senator from SC Former VP, Secretary of state, secretary of war Believed strongly in states' rights over the federal power and held the interests of the slave-holding south as his highest priority.
Stephen Douglass
Senator from Illinois Takes lead in getting the Compromise Passed after Clay leaves Washington Skilled politician who has his eyes set on the presidency Future political rival of Abraham Lincoln
Terms of Clays Compromise
California admitted as a free state Utah and New Mexico territories to decide about slavery Texas-New mExico boundary dispute resolved; Texas paid $10 million by federal government Sale of slaves banned in the District of Columbia, but slavery itself may continue there
Fugitive Slave Act
Part of the Compromise of 1850, has very harsh terms Alleged fugitives denied jury trial, right to testify on their own behalf Federal commissioners paid more for returning than freeing accused People convicted of helping a fugitive fined, imprisioned, or both.
Frederick Douglass
Former enslaved person who becomes a leading voice in the abolitionist movement, giving speeches and writing books about the horrors of slavery.
Underground Railroad
Secret network of people who help slaves escape
Harriet Tubman
Escaped slavery A conductor on 19 trips
Lincoln's victory...
Caused southerners to feel they have lost their political voice.
Reasons why SC secedes from Union
Want to complete independence from federal control Fear end to their way of life Want to preserve labor system
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederacy
Fort Sumter
Area where the first shots are fired
Union War Strategy
Anaconda Plan
Anaconda Plan
Developed by Winfield Scott Blockade southern ports Divide confederacy in two in west Capture Richmond, confederate capital
Confederate Strategy:
Defense Invade North if opportunity arises
Union Avantages:
Number of soldiers Factories Food Railroads
Confederacy Advantages
Cotton profits Motivation
Stonewall Jackson
Led the Confederate army in the Battle of Bull Run
George McClellan
Leader of the Union Army in the beginning of the war
General Ulysses S. Grant
Union general in the western theater
Battle of Antietam
Bloodiest single-day battle
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point in the war
George Meade
Union General who leads the army in thr Battle of Gettysburg
The Gettysburg Address...
Honors dead U.S. soldiers Calls for living to dedicate selves to preserve Union, freedom
William Sherman's war strategy
Total, leave nothing behind.
Abraham Lincoln
Wins election of 1864
Robert E. Lee surrenders...
At the Appomattox Court House
Civil War death toll
13th Amendment
Abolishes slavery in all states
Ford's Theater
Where Lincoln was assasinated
John Wilkes Booth
Killed Abraham Lincoln
Andrew Johnson
Sworn in as president after Lincoln's assasination