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Cell Test 2 (copy)

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33 Terms
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Photosynthesis Chemical Equation
CO2 + H2O → C6H12O6 + O2
Cellular Respiration Chemical Equation
C6H12O6 + O2 → CO2 + H2O
Carbohydrate
Starches and Sugars that provide short term energy to the body.
Lipid
Fats that provide long term energy for the body. Lipids are important molecules that often make up membranes in the cell.
Protein
Proteins have many unique functions. Proteins repair and build body tissues, allow metabolic reactions to take place (enzymes), coordinate body functions such as waste removal, protect the body from pathogens (immune system).
Nucleic Acid
Nucleic Acids carry the genetic blueprint for the cell and carry instructions for the function of the cell. (DNA & RNA).
Inputs of Photosynthesis (Reactants)
Carbon Dioxide, Water, Light Energy
Outputs of Photosynthesis (Products)
Oxygen, Glucose
Inputs of Cellular Respiration (Reactants)
Glucose, Oxygen
Outputs of Cellular Respiration (Products)
Carbon Dioxide, Water, ATP
Mitochondria
The powerhouse of the cell. The mitochondria takes Oxygen and Glucose and turns it into ATP, or usable energy for the cell. (Plant and Animal).
Chloroplast
The organelle responsible for converting Carbon Dioxide, Water and Light energy into Glucose and Oxygen for the cell. (Plants only).
Cell Membrane
Primarily composed of Phospholipids. The cell membrane is a semi-permeable bilayer.
Osmosis
The diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane.
Facilitaed Diffusion
Diffusion that requires a helper protein. Allows large or charged molecules to cross the cell membrane (water, glucose).
Hypertonic Solution
Low solute concentration/ high water concentration.
Hypotonic Solution
High solute concentration/low water concentration..
Isotonic Solution
Equal solute/water concentration in solution and in cell.
Cholesterol
Prevents the cell membrane from becoming too solid or too liquid.
Lipid Chemical Structure
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
Carbohydrate Chemical Structure
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
Protein Chemical Structure
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Nucleic Acid Chemical Structure
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous
Biomolecules
Lipid, Carbohydrate, Protein, Nucleic Acid
Monomer of Protein
Amino Acid
Polymer of Protein
Polypeptide
Monomer of Carbohydrate
Monosaccharide
Polymer of Carbohydrate
Polysaccharide
Monomer of Nucleic Acid
Nucleotide
Diffusion
Random movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration (oxygen, carbon dioxide).
Passive Transport
Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, Osmosis. Requires no energy from the cell to complete.
Transport Proteins
Required during Facilitated Diffusion. Proteins span the cell membrane and allow large or charged molecules across the cell membrane. (Aquaporin, Ion Channel, Glycoproteins, Carrier Proteins).
Homeostasis
Cells must maintain stable internal conditions. All living cells have mechanisms that allow them to control the internal environment.