Morality Midterm

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What is the magisterium and what is its role in the formation of the conscience?
The magisterium is the living, teaching office of the Church, whose task it is to give authentic interpretation to the Word of God. In the formation of the conscience it teaches what Jesus teaches as good and bad. So the person´s conscience may correspond to Jesus´ teaching. It is the guide to the will of God. It presents moral principles and teachings to assist us.
What is the difference between an objective morality and moral relativism?
The theory of moral objectivism holds that moral standards do indeed exist independently of human social creations. The objective or natural law is rooted in the fundamental dignity of the human person and the sacredness of human life. Moral relativism claims that what is good or evil can vary from situation to situation and from one personal opinion to another. Extension: Moral relativism can result in the claim that acts that are objectively intrinsically evil--like the murder of the innocent--can be permitted.
Identify the different types of law :
Eternal Law, Divine Law, Ecclesiastical Law , Natural Law, Human Law
What is eternal law?
- The order in creation that reflects God's will and purpose; it is always true and never changes - (school def) God´s wisdom as manifested in the nature of acts and movements
What is divine law?
- Law revealed by God - Revealed Law - Found in the old testament and fulfilled the New Testament by Jesus - 10 commandments (Old) - Beatitudes (New)
What is Ecclesiastical Law?
"Canon Law", the law that governs the Church
What is Natural Law?
- God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law - (school def) enables man to discern the good and evil, and the truth and the lie - (school def) No measurement
What is human law/civil law?
these laws are enacted by the civil governments for the common good
What are the steps of forming our conscience?
- Think - Educate yourself: use scripture and the Church’s teachings. - Seek the council of TRUSTED others -Examine your conscience daily - take part in the sacramental life of the Church: pray and and frequent the sacraments of confession and the Eucharist
What are the steps that we should take when faced with a difficult moral decision?
- Search out the facts - Think about alternatives and consequences - Consult others and consider how your actions will affect them - Pray to God for guidance - Use Prudence (wise decision making) when making moral decisions
What are the types of conscience?
Erroneous, Lax, Legalistic
Erroneous Conscience
- wrong info or not all info - bad advice - not perfect-makes mistakes - we are responsible for seeking out the truth - unwarrented guilt
Lax Conscience
- Lazy conscience - insensitive to right and wrong - do not see the wrong in our actions - immune to guilt - accustomed to sinning - too little guilt
legalistic conscience
- caught up in obeying the rules so perfectly that you don´t see the real need for the situation - excessive guilt-out of porportion
What are some circumstances that might hinder a person´s conscience from functioning properly
- ignorance of Christ and God - bad example from friends and society - social experience and emotion - school - parents and the way they raised you
What are the sources to forming a conscience?
- Scripture - Tradition - Magisterium
What is the difference between venial and mortal sin?
Mortal sins are grave offenses that sever our friendship with God and, consequently. Venial sins are lesser offenses that injure but do not destroy one's relationship with God.
Mortal Sin + Example
- Mortal sin is a grave offence against God that destroys our relationship with him - 3 conditions --- grave matter --- full knowledge --- engage the will - example: murdering someone with bad intentions
Venial Sin + Example
- a less serious act that offends the love of God - example: stealing small amounts of somethings or being mean
What is the difference between personal sin and original sin?
Original sin is the sin we are born with because of the personal sin of the first humans and their act of disobedience. Original sin corrupts our nature and gives us the tendency to sin. Personal sin is the willful disobedience to God´s will. Personal sin goes against the moral/eternal law and is the acts or thoughts we have that are sinful and/or wrong.
What is repentance and why is it necessary for forgiveness?
Repentance is to rearrange your entire way of thinking, feeling and being in order to forsake that which is wrong. It is thinking about wrong action. Repentance is the way provided for us to become free from our sins and receive forgiveness for them. Sins slow our spiritual progression and can even stop it. Repentance makes it possible for us to grow and develop spiritually again. If we do not repent we cannot be forgiven.
What are the sources of forgiveness?
The source of forgiveness is contrition and feeling sorry to come back to our relationship to God and Jesus (perfect contrition)
What are the steps to reconciliation?
1. examine conscience 2. confess sins 3. receive penance 4. pray the act of contrition 5. receive absolution
What is the Greatest Commandment? How does it apply to the Ten Commandments?
The Great Commandment means to love God, for neighbor, and for ourselves. The Great commandment is the foundation and basic of the ten commandments. The ten commandments are to be lived through the light of the threefold yet single great commandment.
What is moral theology? What are its fonts, sources?
Principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong, good/bad; just/unjust; of human actions and Christ as a role model \- Intention: \-- position or reason for doing something \-- goal that motivates our reactions \- Moral object: \-- every act has a moral meaning \-- towards good or evil \- Circumstances: \-- anticipated consequences of an act
What are the requirements of a just law that we discussed in class?
- an ordinance of reason that exists for the common good and is affirmed by legitimate authority - all just laws find its origin in God, who communicates his divine plan to man
What did we learn from Genesis 1:27
We learn that we are created in God´s image and likeness in their moral, spiritual, and intellectual nature. He created them man and women to be creating partners.
What does Genesis 1:27´s role play in the Church´s moral teaching?
It shows how we are all the same as children of God and are here to spread his message. God created us male and female. We have immense dignity as children of God
What are the fonts of morality?
- intention - the object chosen - the circumstances - the result
What is the principle of double effect and when do we use it?
- when the object, intention, and circumstances are good so is the result - applied to determine whether or not actions that have both good and evil effects are permissible - made only when the good effect cannot be reasonably brought about in any other way - four conditions must be met ----good in itself ----right intent ----the end does not justify the means ----the good effect must balance the bad effect
What does the line ¨the end does not justify the means mean?
- a good intention can never turn an intrinsically bad action into a just one - a bad intention can turn into a good act - the end does not justify the means ---action moral : means moral
How can prayer help us in making a moral decision?
Prayer helps us in guidance from God to make the right decisions
How are the Beatitudes a portrait of Christ?
Because the beatitudes essentially describe the call to holiness, an invitation to be a light of the world through the love of Christ
What does poor in spirit mean and why must we be poor in spirit to find Christ?
- God blesses those who are poor and realize their need for Him, for the Kingdom of Heaven is theirs - It is understanding that you have absolutely nothing of worth to offer God. Jesus is saying that, no matter your status in life, you must recognize your spiritual poverty before you can come to God in faith to receive the salvation He offers.
Deadly Sin: Pride
undue self esteem or self love, which seeks attention and honor and sets oneself in competition to God
Lively Virtue: Humility
having a correct understanding of yourself and your identity. It acknowledges that God (not the self) is the author of all good
Deadly Sin: envy
hating someone for what they have
Livly Virue: Kindness
genorosity, consideration, helpfulness towards another for their sake
Deadly sin: Anger
emotion that is not itself wrong, can be irrational can harden into resentment and hate, can lead one to do wrong
Lively Virtue: Patience
accepting smuggles without getting overly emotional/angry
Deadly sin: Sloth
involves a lack of effort in meeting duties and responsibilities to God, others, and oneself
Lively Virtue: Diligence
careful and persistent effort to work
Deadly sin: Greed
inordinate attachment to the goods of creation
Lively Virtue: Love
willing the good of the other for their sake
Deadly sin: Gluttony
ever greater desire for more consumption
Lively Virtue: Temperance
- moderates the attraction of pleasure - balance in the use of goods - mastery of the will over instinct
Deadly sin: Lust
an inordinate desire for earthly pleasures, particularly sexual pleasures
Lively virtue: Chastity
living our sexualities according to God´s will
Pride corresponds with
Envy corresponds with
Anger corresponds with
Sloth corresponds with
Greed corresponds with
Gluttony corresponds with
Lust corresponds with
According to the eighth Beatitude, how does a person transform the world?
A person who loves and turns to the Cross transforms the world. When we unite ourselves to the Christ, we unite our suffering to that of Christ and through his intercessory power and love, we are able to transform the world.
What are the theological virtues and how are they received?
- Faith, Hope, Love - baptism by God
enables our belief in God for what he has said and revealed
to enable our trust in God´s promise
- to follow the ten commandments - love everyone
What are the cardinal virtues and how are they required?
* temperance: moderation * prudence: wise decision making * fortitude: courage * justice: fairness \-- they are acquired from acquiring the theological virtues
Ten Commandments
Thou shall have no other God's before me. Thou shalt not take the lord´s name in vain Remember the Sabbath day and keep it Holy. ... Honor your father and mother. ... Thou shalt not kill. ... Thou shalt not commit adultery. ... Thou shalt not steal. Thou shall not bear false witness Thou shall not covet their neighbor´s goods Thou shall not covet their neighbor´s wife
first commandment
thou shall not follow false gods
second commandment
Thou shalt not take the Lord´s name in vain
third commandment
Thou shall keep holy the sabbath
Fourth commandment
thou shall honor thy father and mother
fifth commandment
thou shall not kill
sixth commandment
thou shall not commit adultry
seventh commandment
thou shall not steal
eighth commandment
thou shall not bear false witness against thy neighbor
ninth commandment
thou shall not covet thy neighbor´s goods
tenth commandment
thou shall not covet thy neighbor´s wife
How does the first commandment set the tone for the rest?
The first commandment helps prepare us for the other ones and conveys the supreme importance of God in the life of every person. Stresses the duty of mankind to adhere to the one true God.
Idolatry in modern society
- is defined as ¨the divination of a creature in place of God; the substitution of some one (or thing) for God; worshiping a creature (even money, pleasure, or power) instead of the creator." - examples include: politician + horoscopes
if idols are wrong then why are catholic people allowed or even encouraged to have pictures icons and religious symbols?
They respect them but do not view them as idols. they are used as focal points to direct us to God.
The first three commandments relate to our relationship with God. Why do you think the commandment to honor your parents is placed first among the commandments relating to other people?
It is first because we need to learn how to see each other as humans. Physical and moral support begins within the family. Parents are our first relationship. ¨ Children like what they learn¨ . They first learn how to live with their parents. All others of the commandments flow from this.
What might happen if people did not honor their fathers and mothers?
If people do not honor their father and mother they lose that relationship with them and lose those values. You spread that loss through other relationships.
What are the obligations parents have to their children
- the duty to teach their children how to pray, how to be virtuous, how to obey the commandments, how to hear and follow God's voice, and how to place spiritual values above material ones - also to raise them right to be a kind human in society
What are the obligations of children to their parents?
- they must give them material, emotional, and moral support in old age and in times of illness, loneliness, or distress - make sure they have what they need to maintain their lives and their dignity - gratitude.
What is intrinsically evil?
Something that is always evil with no right reason for the act
What is the major difference between the Old and New Laws?
The Old Law prohibits and requires laws to a person. The New Law fulfills and lives out the ten commandments. It perfects the old law. Through Christ in the New Law we learned to live like Christ and transform our heart
Please list and briefly describe the qualifications for armed resistance.
- there is certain grave and prolonged violation of fundamental human rights - all other means of redress have been exhausted - such resistance will not provoke worse disorders - there is well founded hope of success - it is impossible to reasonably foresee any better solution
Define domestic church¨? What do we learn in the context of family?
Domestic Church is the love between the father and son to emulate mother and father to teach unconditional love. A family is the smallest unit of society. If the family is good and strong so is society. Our home is like a church to learn about how to honor, love, and respect God. A home is mirrored by the father, son, and holy spirit, God is intrinsically always forgiving, loving, and caring.
Please list the fundamental rights
- flow from the dignity of being made in the image and likeness of God -- right of life -- freedom on speech and expression -- freedom of religion -- education -- work -- property
Please define the effect of a violation of a fundamental human right on an individual and society? How is it considered a social sin?
A violation of a fundamental human right has an effect on an individual by making them feel trapped and controlled. It effects society by creating riots and protests against these violations because they all deserve the same rights and will fight for them as a community. it can be considered a social sin because these rights would most likely be violated by another individual or community.
What is the materialistic view of the world?
The materialistic view of the world is that nothing immaterial or supernatural exists. Family is the foundation for this world because of the principle of unity.
What is the link between happiness and moral behavior?
The link between happiness and moral behavior is that the moral life is increased with moral behavior which leads to happiness. This brings maturity into life to reach a person´s fulfillment in the glory of heaven. This leads us through the natural ends of the human person through human flourishment.
What are the precepts of the Church?
- Mass on Sunday (holy days of obligation) --at least once a year - January first = solemnity of Mary - Ascension Thursday ( 40 days after Easter) - August 18 = assumption of Mary - November 1 = All Saint´s Day - December 8 = immaculate conception - December 25 = incarnation of the Lord
Why do the precepts of the Church exist?
The precepts of the Church exist to ensure that we are connected to the life and strength given to us through the Church. It is to summarize core values and foster good relations.
Why did god create humans with free will if all they do is cause harm?
God created humans with free will so that they have a choice to conform to the will of god. People learn from bad choices and go to God and ask for forgiveness. Good actions result from good choices which are exercises of our good will to choose good over evil. If we truly commit to living the commandments according to Christ´s messages of free will, assisted by grace will increasingly conform to the will of God
What kind of challenges do humans face when trying to keep holy the Lord´s day? How do we overcome this?
People face the challenges of keeping the Lord´s day holy if they are living in poverty and have to work on Sundays and cannot go to mass nor spend the day with their families. They can overcome this by trying to devote time to God at home even if it is a small time. They can spread out their responsibilities throughout the week rather than Sunday.
What are the natural ends of a human person?
We reach natural end through soul and body. We reach the natural end of the kingdom of heaven through truth, community, reproduction, and structure. These lead to human flourishment.