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Cells pt.2

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50 Terms
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cell
smallest unit that carries out all life functions
scientist started looking into primitive microscope
how were cells discovered
hooke
saw chambers under a cork microscope that reminded him of where monks lived and named them cells hypothezised all organisms are made of cells
schleiden
stated all plants are made of cells; botonist concluded an embryonic plant arose from a single cell
schwaan
focused on nerve/animal cells stated all animals are made of cells
virchow
cells come from pre-existing cells
leeuwhenhoek
discovered uni cellular organisms first to see multiple cells, including red blood cells first to see nucleus of blood cells
cell theory
living organisms are made of cells, they are the basic structure/organizational unit of all organisms and they come from pre existing cells
prokaryotic cell
-does not have a true nucleus or membrane bound organelles -blue-green algae, bacteria
eukaryotic cell
-contains membrane bound organelles -protist ,fungi,plants, animals
prokaryotic: cell wall: cell membrane: nucleus: endoplasmic reticulum: gogi: mitochondria: chloroplast: ribosomes: central vacuole: chromatin or dna:
āœ“ āœ“ x x x x x āœ“ x āœ“
eukaryotic plant: cell wall: cell membrane: nucleus: endoplasmic reticulum: gogi: mitochondria: chloroplast: ribosomes: central vacuole: chromatin or dna:
āœ“ āœ“ āœ“ āœ“ āœ“ āœ“ āœ“ āœ“ āœ“ āœ“
eukaryotic animal: cell wall: cell membrane: nucleus: endoplasmic reticulum: gogi: mitochondria: chloroplast: ribosomes: central vacuole: chromatin or dna:
x āœ“ āœ“ āœ“ āœ“ āœ“ x āœ“ x āœ“
microfilaments and microtubules
form the cytoskeleton (framework) of the animal cell
microfilaments
rod like and provide movement
microtubules
long slender tubes of protiens that provide framework for cell
flagella
-long whip like for movement -made of microtubles -ony human cell with this is the sperm cell
cilia
short hair like for movement -made of microtubles
cell wall
-extra barrier made of cellulose -outside of plant cell -support
vacuole
-large and central storage of water
chloroplast
-green cause of chlorophyll -energy from sun is turned into sugar
microfilaments and microtubules
-form the cytoskeleton (framework) of the animal cell
cell membrane
-semipermeable -phospholipid bylayar embeded w/ proteins -protiens act as channels -contain ID tags -fluid mosaic model
nucleus
-big large round structure -surrounded by nuclear envelope -stains purple usually -contains nucleus and chromosones -control center for cell
nucleolus
-small inside nucleus -makes ribsomes -has nucleolus plasma (jelly like material)
chromatin
-dna of cell -function involved with heditary -blueprint of cell -chromoson: shortened/condensed/replicated
cytoplasm
-everything in cell membrane beside nucleus -cytosol: jelly surronding organelle -organelles are suspended in cytosol -chemical reaction take place
mitochondria
-bean shaped -food is converted to energy -crista: where ATP takes place
ribsome
-smallest, most important -spherical organelles where protein is synthesized -located throughout cell rough er -made of ribosomal rna
rough endosplamic reticulum
-elongated canal like membrane -connects nuclear envelope or outside of nucleus -transports proteins
smooth ER
-branching network of tubules -no ribosomes -usually connected to rer -transports lipids --detoxification of drugs
golgi apparatus
-stacks like pancakes -secretes and packages
lysosome
-cleans cellular debris -pinch of golgi -attach to bacteria cells -dygestive enzymes
active transport
-no energy required -molecules go down concentration gradient from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
diffusion
movement of a substance directly across or through channel points
facilitated diffusion
proteins in cell membranes carry molecules across
osmosis
diffusion of water
hypotonic solution
cell swells
hypertonic solution
cell shrinks
isotonic
no change in cell
dynamic equilibrium
a state of balance between continuing processes
cytolosis
the dissolution or disruption of cells
no, it will cause your cells to shrink making your kidneys remove the salt. the water is hypertonic.
should you drink sea water
bulk transport
where it is packaged and either shipped out or brought in
endocytosis
material goes into cell in bulk
exocytosis
material leaves the cell and is packaged and secreted
lipid protien
what does fluid stand for what does mosaic stand for
crisper
during hypotonic, a plant cell ______
shrivels
during hypertonic a plant cell _______
microvilli
increases surface area