General bio 2 super quizes

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Bacteria have ___________ Regions of nucleic acid
The _________ hypothesis suggests that viruses "escaped" from Proto cells or early simple cells
fruiting bodies
communal reproduction in bacteria occurs inside________
The ________ Species concept, is based on the idea that a species is a branch or lineage on the tree of life, all descending from a common ancestor
Charles Darwin
Which biologist began the "tree thinking revolution, he caused a paradigm shift and now all biology must incorporate the ideas with his theory
Same function, different ancestry
Modern birds (aves) and crocodiles are sister taxa, because they shared a MRCA, probably of a flightless__________ That went extinct millions of years ago.
modern synthesis
__________ attempts to link evidence from ecology, evolution, Population genetics, taxonomy, morphology, genealogy, and biogeography together to explain biodiversity
Great Chain of Being
Early theories placed humans above other animals in a hierarchy, this was known as the____________
Branching/speciation event
A node on a phylogenic tree represents________________
A set of characteristics that define a clade
Centers networks borders
Which metapatterns played the biggest role in the origins of life
When radioactive nuclei decay is predictable and the ________ is the time it takes to convert 50% of the original unstable material into a new stable nuclei
common descent
In the 5 to 7 million years that the hominid lineage has been diverging from its common ancestor with the great apes, dozens of hominid species have arisen, often with several species coexisting in time and space. As recently as 30,000 years ago, Homo sapiens coexisted with homo Neanderthalensis, both species had large brain and advanced intellects. The fact that these traits were common in both species is most easily explained by which of the following?
Last extinction events lead to at least a _____ decline in total number of species
The existence of a nearly universal genetic code
strong evidence in support of the common ancestry of all life comes from________
The evidence shows that life began appearing or at least occurred soon after ________ became abundant on the surface of earth
Anarchies and bacteria use______ For motility
horizontal gene transfer
Bacteria use________ to recombine genes
Surface area ;metabolism
Internal membranes increase_______ for ________
Phenotype; genotype
Natural selection is the force that creates speciation events, the environment is applying pressure on organisms________ but ultimately changes in the________ Frequency which lead to evolution
MRCA; all of its
A clade must include the _________ and _____ descendants to be a monophyletic
Rhesus monkey (old world primate)
Which of the following would make a good outgroup to be apes, when building their phylogeny
When constructing if I need any tree, parsimony dictates that the tree should represent the _______ changes in character state
Giant insects to survive
When the earths oxygen levels reach their maximum it allowed for_______
shorelines and mudflats
Darwin thought that the first life on earth probably formed on_________ he called them "warm little ponds"
metabolism genes
The two major competing theories of the origin of life focused on either_______ or _______ first
the LUCA is the first _________ on the "tree of life"
Is a term that refers to similarities among various species that occur because of the species are derived from a common ancestor
Evidence that viruses are not alive includes the fact that they are________
In the masticated in the deep ocean what compound was the substrate for the first metabolic processes?
cell membrane
Before the first so as to escape the market is what structure has the form
big bang
The origin of all matter (stars, elements, planets, and life) began approx 13 GYA in a _____
Viral ____ can only occur when their genome hijacks a host cell and tricks it into producing more viruses.
We need new (novel) _____ because of rapid evolution within the target viral genome.
binnary fission
Most bacteria reproduce via ______
Based on recent work the Eukarya are nested within what was historically Archaea, this creates a _____ 3-domain tree of life.
cell wall chemistry
Gram staining works to differentiate the complexity of bacterial ___
sister taxa
Based on this cladogram, all mammals are _____ all reptiles.
live birth
According to this cladogram, which mammalian feature distinguishes Placentals from Monotremes?
all of these are shifts
Darwinian evolution represented a paradigm shift by breaking with centuries of thought. Which of the following was also a paradigm shift? -Germ Theory of Disease -Plate tectonics and continental drift -Heliocentric model of the solar system
A set of characteristics that define a clade are known as ___.
the ancestral (or ___) branch has the least derived characters.
the amount of Uranium-238 in volcanic layers surrounding the fossil
a researcher discovers a fossil of what appears to be one of the oldest-known multicellular organisms, easily several hundred million years old. The researcher could estimate the age of this fossil based on:
addition of oxygen to atmosphere
Which event stimulated the rapid development of eukaryotes (plants, fungi, animals)?
If the half-life of carbon-14 is about 5,730 years, then a fossil that has 1/16th the normal proportion of carbon-14 to carbon-12 should be about how many years old?
surface area, metabolism
Internal membranes increase ____ for ____.
Modern Birds (Aves) and Crocodiles are sister taxa, because they shared a MRCA, probably a flightless ____ that went extinct millions of years ago.
A phylogenetic tree that hypothesizes the fewest changes is said to be most ___.
The origin of all matter (stars, elements, planets, and life) began approximately 13GYA in a _____.
The "Great ___ Event" followed closely after the evolution and emergence of photosynthetic plants and algae.
radioactive decay
The ____ of an atoms nucleus is predictable and provides a way to date really old objects.
speciation; extinction
Phylogenetic trees are hypothetical explanations depicting ___ and ___ events.
There is still some controversy among biologists about whether Neanderthals should be placed within the same species as modern humans or into a separate species of their own. Most DNA sequence data analyzed so far indicate that there was interbreeding between Neanderthals and humans; however, it appears to have been limited and mostly unidirectional (Neanderthal genes are present in Homo sapiens DNA, but there exists little to no evidence of the DNA of Homo sapiens in the small number of genomes sequenced from Neanderthal fossils. Which species concept is most applicable as a method of analysis in this example?
oxygen gas
By increasing ____ in the air bacteria radically changed the atmosphere.
Giant insects to survive
When the Earth's oxygen levels reached their maximum, it allowed for
decay of radioactive isotopes
Radiometric dating is based on the
primodial Soup
At some point in the Late Hadean Earth, enough materials, energy and conditions where conducive to forming macromolecules. This original material is often called the ____.
A suggested explanation that might be true and is subject to testing by further observations is a(n)
not informative
The bacteria domain is homoplasious and ________ because it is based mostly on form and function.
which object helped to shield Earth from bombardment of celestial debris (meteoroids, asteroids, etc.)?
The oldest crystals on Earth contain Zircon, which has been dated to be 4.4GYA, based on the decay of ___.
they had a common ancestor
Traditionally, whales and hippopotamuses have been classified in different orders, the Cetacea and the Artiodactyla, respectively. Recent molecular evidence, however, indicates that the whales' closest living relatives are the hippos. This has caused some zoologists to lump the two orders together into a single clade, the Cetartiodactyla. There is no consensus on whether the Cetartiodactyla should be accorded order status or superorder status. This is because it remains unclear whether the whale lineage diverged from the lineage leading to the hippos before or after the other members of the order Artiodactyla (pigs, camels, etc.) diverged (see Figure 20.5).
gram positive and gram negative
after a gram stain, we can categorize bacteria into what 2 categories
rapid reproduction, mutation, and genetic recombination promote genetic diversity in prokaryotes
reverse transcriptase
retroviruses are equipped with an enzyme called _____
host range
each particular virus can infect cells of only a limited number of host species
what is not present in viruses
hybrid zones
a region in which members of different species meet and mate, producing at least some offspring of mixed ancestry, otherwise known as ______
a species may originate from an accident during cell division that results in extra set of chromosomes, a condition called _______
the evolutionary history of a species or group of species that can be traced by biologists in a _____, which helps us understand the diversity of organisms.
analogous structures that arose independently
a group that contains a most recent common ancestor (MRCA), but not all of its descendants is called a __________ group
All eukaryotes have mitochondria (or their remnants), whereas many eukaryotes do not have plastids
Biologist think that Endosymbiosis gave rise to mitochondria before plastids partly because
Eukaryotes are monophyletic and all contain___________, Which stores and protects their genetic info
all protists are
Which scientist is most credited with explaining how organelles contain their own DNA and internal membranes
Solar, chemical
photosynthesis converts_______ energy into ______ energy stored in sugars
The_____ Are the sites of the most photosynthesis in plants
RuBisCO, an _______ is capable of speeding up the rate of photosynthesis in most plants
Which color is most reflected in a green plant
The stomatal crypts of xerophytes can contain ____ - like structures. These help prevent water loss.
saguaro cactus
Which of these plants is adapted for xerophytic conditions
Monocots show a different pattern of vascular bundle distribution
When examining the phylogenetic tree of land plants, why are the angiosperms split into three groups (magnolids, monocots, eudicots)
Alive, does
Because sugars and other substances are selectively added to and removed from phloem, it's cells must be _____ and transport in phloem _____ require energy
pitchers and traps
An evolutionarily strategy of plants growing in nutrient poor soil, like swamps and bugs, is to convert leaves into___________
The massive general Sherman tree in California is over 100 and tall and may weigh millions of pounds, but it is an independent_________
Fertilization, zygote
Gametes combine in the________ step of sexual reproduction, which creates a__________
seed coat
The multicellular to an embryo of all land plants is covered in a ______ which prevents desiccation
Lignin sporopollenin cellulose chlorophyll b
Commonalities to both charophytes and vascular then plans include
Green flagellate
Based on our current understanding of plant phylogeny, the MRCA of all "green plants" was a
endosymbiont theory
The _______ explains how some organelles have internal membranes in their own DNA
Colonial protests, like Volvox, provide evidence for the evolution of
Process are incredibly diverse forming at least eight _______ compared to the better known animals, plants, and fungi
Primary endosymbiosis is the result of alga being engulfed by a cyanobacteria
Which statement is correct with regard to the comparison of secondary endosymbiosis to primary endosymbiosis
Secondary endosymbiosis
Plastids that are surrounded by more than two membranes are evidence of
From engulfed, originally free - living Proteobacteria
According to the Endo symbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells, how did mitochondria originate
Photosynthesis creates ______ gas as a byproduct
RuBisCO concentration
Plants trying to maximize ___________ by decreasing energy needed for VS does energy created by photosynthesis
Parasitic plants need to be dispersed to find a new host. Some rely on ______ to do the moving of the tasty but sticky seeds
Water and minerals in the xylem
The vascular system of land plants works to transport
Flooding events Forest fire droughts
The tree rings, growth of the bifacial vascular cambium can be used to detect growing conditions throughout the trees life. What are some of the events that can see based on ring size or condition?
Sporophyte dominant; gametophyte reduction
Do you evolution of land plants favors the
Vascular tissue
The first line plants resembled bryophytes and were similarly small and limited to moist environments. The emergence of plants with __________ allowed for rapid colonization of land and rapid vertical growth
Bryophytes (mosses)
Which group is most dependent on water for both sex and growth
Diploid dominant
Look at pic
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Haploid dominant
Look at pic
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Alternation of generations
Look at pic
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Diploid dominant
Look at pic
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Alternation of generations
Look at pic
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Sex inside the cone or flower
The major adaptation which police invented plan colonization online and give us the millions of varieties we see today was
Cuticle, Mycorrhizal symbionts, Alternation of generation, Multicellular 2N embryo, Spores with tough outer coats
What characteristics are shared by all land plants?
Based on shape and parent alone, which of these plans does not have bifacial vascular cambium and lacks secondary growth
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apical meristem
Rapid cell division (mitosis) and growth occurs at the_______ both of shoots and roots
No pattern
What cleavage pattern do diploblastic organisms follow
Invertebrates [like frogs] the best support first formed the opening for the___
Zygote, blastula, gastrula, triploblastic
Which of these sequences is correctly ordered from simplest and most complex
All adults prefer exhibit which form of symmetry
Gastrovascular cavity (GVC), blind
Based on this figure, the hydra has only one opening into its blank and therefore the gut is ___
Gut, tube within tube
Based on this figure annelids have a complete ____ and it forms an ___
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Adults can specialize on reproduction and larva can focus on growth Lava can disperse lowering competition with adults Larva feed on different food items lowering competition with adults
What is an advantage of having larval stage is in animals
See turtles have thick skin covered in scales and this protects even their mouths and tongues
Why are turtles able to eat sponges regardless of their spicule type
The flagellated cells or ____ of a sponge line the inner surfaces. They can pull huge volumes of water through the animal every minute
Radial symmetry in adults
The synapomorphies of the cnidarians include
Bodies covered in fur or hair
All animals have
Monotremes, marsupials, placentals
The three clades of mammals are
Both the ground up and the trees down hypothesis is or how dinosaurs learned/evolved flight are both dependent on dinosaurs feeding on what taxa
Which group of tetra pods must undergo metamorphosis to develop lungs for terrestrial breathing
The first feathers were primarily used for what purpose
Migrate from feeding to breeding grounds and back again
The ability to _______ Is a huge benefit to birds. It allows them to exploit their resources/conditions of multiple Eco systems across build space and season.
Filter feeders, beating the flagella of collar cells to form a current & food is absorbed
Sponges are most accurately described as
Heterotrophic protist
The last common ancestor of all animals was probably an
A change from a microbe only environment to one of large producers, predators and prey
One important evolutionary change that occurred with the rise of animals is
In terms of food capture which sponge cell is most similar to the cnidocyte of a cnidarian
Use the following figure to identify the most recent common ancestor of echinoderms and chordates. How many other taxonomic groups shown in this phylogenic tree share the same common ancestor
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Increase in the number of bird parasites on the Galápagos Islands
Evidence indicates that the ancestral finch species from South America arrived on the Galapagos islands and formed many new species, adapting to the diverse environments on the islands. With the evolution of these new birds species on the Galapagos islands, we would expect to find a corresponding
They coordinate movements through a non-centralized nerve net
Which of the following is true of the members of the phylum Cnidaria
Fast-moving predators with to tagmata, the ______ have only ______ pair of legs per segment
Centipedes(chilopoda); 1
Hard cuticle Ecdysis Tagmatization
The Arthropoda share a set of characteristics including
Which of the following groups do not act as a parasite on humans or a vector for human diseases
The American cockroach family is an example of
Simple metamorphosis
Two sets of jaws (oral and pharyngeal)
The ray finned fishes have amazing complex feeding structures, including
In this image how many pairs of pharyngeal openings are present
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With two siphons and a filter, A sea squirt (urochordate) obtains food most like a
The notochord and the hollow nerve cord are surrounded by which germ layer or cell type? Hint: the cord is hollow
Dioecious; spawning
Sea urchins are ___ and archive fertilization through _____
This figure demonstrate three organ systems which One is not found in all triploblastic animals
Exoskeleton, chitin
And all arthropods _______ is secreted as a liquid _______ which hardens and provides armor
Sweat glands
In a skin cross section, which structure is important for heat release and thermoregulation
It may have evolved multiple times and is currently unresolved
Based on this cladogram what can you determine about the evolution or development of “organ grade” status
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They mostly are invasive brought here accidentally by humans but now they can cohabit campus because each one feels a slightly different ecological niche
How is it that we have so many lizard types on campus
Aposematic coloration
The organism whose skin is shown in this figure is brightly colored and full of Glenn’s like this frog listen example of. It means it, when it shows off the colors
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Mollusc and ecdysis
Which of these taxa and unique feature is not correctly paired
Human muscle systems are incredibly complex with three main muscle types and approximately ______ different named muscles
Muscles constrict and change the shape of the fluid filled compartments
In the Daria the hydrostatic skeleton can move the Anemones among the bottom of the ocean this happens when
Cnidarian larva possess anterior-posterior, left-right and dorsal-ventral aspects
Which of these features is true when support the claim that the ancestral cnidarians had bilateral symmetry
According to the evidence collected so far the animal kingdom is
Organisms with ____ and bilateral symmetry are more efficient and moving, responding to stimuli, and finding food
Some core rely on ____ relationship with Dinoflagellates, zooxanthellae
Blind gut with many cavities
In the generalized progression of digestive system development what feature came after the blind gut (simple GVC)
The first compartment to be added to the elementary channel of the worm Gut was the _______ later on birds and crocodiles like to put rocks in here
In the insects and crustaceans most mechanical grinding and breakdown of food particles occur in the
Funnels pass through step to walls of annelids to process the waste in an adjacent neprhridia and the waste is released via nephridiopores Crustaceans collect nitrogenous waste to be expelled from their mouth, and it has been processed and all nutrients removed in a green gland mucus coatings cover the flat bodies of Platyhelminthes, increasing surface area and waste flow out of their body due to diffusion
Which strategies has evolved to remove nitrogen is waste from the body
Which organism will take the longest to digest just a meal
Filter feeders
Most of the bivalvia are obligate ______ relying on muscular systems to create water flow to attract and troubling items
The cocoon which contains the fertilize eggs in the earthworm is produced by the
The tongue like rasping organ in the head of many mollusks is the
Which structure can be modified into a venom Tip harpoon
Scraping and sucking food particles into the GVC via midventral proboscis
A typical planarian, non parasitic flatworm feeds by
Based on this image, which fish taxa has the least SA (surface area) in the midgut and hindgut regions?
which group was the first to fully colonize the land, without returning to the water?
flame cells and excretory pores
In flat worms, excretion process through the ___ a very early precursor to the kidneys
enzymes, phagocytosis
when food is ingested by Platyhelminthes it must first be digested in an extracellular way, this is best done by adding ____ to the GVC. Later in digestion, smaller particles can be consumed via intracellular digestion (___)
crocodilians (alligators, caimans, and crocodile species) pythons (large bodied, territorial snakes) skinks (salamander, small fossorial lizards)
which groups shows some level of parental care
rapid diversiaction and speciation
when ray-finned fishes invaded the freshwater ecosystems, this presented a new challenge, watersheds can act as reproductive isolating barrios. this has led to ___ within the freshwater fishes of the world.
anuran amphibians cephalopods squamate reptiles
the integument of which taxa can change color in response to the environmental stimuli?
David Yeates said" as soon as plants started to develop height, which is ~ 400 million years ago, insects developed _________"
mouth develops from/ near blastopore
proteosome characteristics include
small, browsrs
Some herbivores are generalists or specialists, with some grazing and others browsing. Which group can survive drought conditions best? Use the graph bellow to help
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Arthropoda & reptilia
which of these pairs share ecdysis as a homologous trait?
mineralized chitin
the hard cuticle of arthropods is composed of ______ and must be shed to allow for growth
Anthozoa (corals & anemones)
the members of which clade in the phylum cnidaria exist only as polyps?
true tissues and no tissues
the most ancient branch point in animal phylogeny is that between having
either male or female reproductive organs
If an individual parasitoid wasp is dioecious, it contains
head segment
the holdfast of a tapeworm is in its scolex, a modified
phalangeal slits & cephalization
the co-evolution of _______ is the primary drivers of terrestrial colonization by animals
most phylogenies place the _____ as the sister taxa to all animals. they even look very similar to cells of a sponge
the members of the opisthokont clade all share a single __________
miotic cell division
during development animals grow from a single diploid zygote cell during
which phyla lacks germ layers
the process that controls and maintains an internally stable body are collectively called:
ecto- , meso- , endo- derm
the three types of germ layers are:
cnidocytes along the tenacles
the feeding response of anemones and jellyfish is similar; they both rely on harpoon like projectiles with venomous spines to immobilize prey items. Harpoons are shot out of the ______
chemo-synthesizing methane into useable sugars
the feeding ecology of animals is driven by the need to find prey items to consume, this has led to many strategies in the animal kingdom. Which of these strategies is not an animal strategy?
cephalization, with bilateral symmetry and ladderlike nerves connected to an anterior brain
when explaining this flat worm, what best describes their nervous system
cephalopods (squid, octopi, etc) & chordates (mammals, fish, reptiles)
which 2 groups independently evolved a closed circulatory system?
convergent evolution, due to aquatic habitats and sessile (immobile) lifestyle of their basal ancestors
the cnidarian and echinoderms have similar nervous system control mechanisms, probably due to their radial symmetry. These similar structural and physiological adaptations are the result of?
a ventral nerve cord that feeds impulses to the brain
arthropods sense the world using many different adaptations (pectines, antennae, feelers, eyes, etc) but they all are connected via
Maine lobster (crustacea)
closed circulatory systems have evolved independently three times, which of these animals has an open system
based on this image, which taxa will have the least complex heart?
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gastrovascular cavity (GVC)
the inner digestive cavity of all cnidarians and Platyhelminthes is called a ______
nerve impulses are transmigrated in both directions across a network of nerves
the unique features of a cnidarian nervous system are ___
acoelomate and triploblastic
animals with 3 well defined germ layers and that have one solid mass of tissue rather than tissues and organs nestled inside a body cavity
_____ are supportive, calcareous or siliceous, structures in the body of many sponges. they are sharp and should deter predation (except for sea turtles, who just don't care)