History Monarchs

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103 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (103)
absolute monarch
a King or Queen that has all the power in their state.
The idea of the divine right of kings was created by
Jacques Bossuet
The monarchs all wanted BLANK not BLANK
Power; Responsibility
government bureaucracies
People who would work for the government
Richest and most powerful family at this time
King of Spain at this time
Charles V
Who does Charles give the land to and what relationship did he have with them
Son - Phillip II and Brother - Ferdinand II
Who got what territories
Ferdinand II - Austria and HRE Phillip II - Spain, Netherlands, and the Spanish colonies
What is M
splitting the countries the Hapsburgs had minizmized the BLANK
Risk of losing these countries.
What did Phillip have a lot of
If Phillip had lots of Money This meant Phillip also had a lot of
What does Phillip use this money on
The Spanish army
What does the Pope ask Phillip
To attack the Ottoman empire because they were not Catholic
What is C
What is D
Does Phillip win against the Ottoman
Why does Phillip not like England
They are Protestant (not Catholic)
Does Phillip win against England
NO; This hurt the Catholic reputation and the Spanish reputation.
who is Phillip married to
Mary; daughter of King Henry and Catherine of Aragon
Who does Phillip propose to so he can become king of England
Elizabeth I
King Phillips palace in Spain
The escorial represented his ----
Power and wealth
The Escorial had a ------ to represent his Catholicism
The Greek artist who was favored because he was Catholic
El Greco
This time period (Spanish renaissance)was similar to what other period
Italian renaissance
Piece of literature that was written at this time by Micheal Cervates
Don Quixote de la Mancha
The idea of the Piece of literature that was wrote at this time by Michael Cervantes
To right every wrong
What is IV
What is IX
Was the rising and decline of the golden age fast or slow
It took a long time for Spain to get to the golden age and a while for it to decline.
4 ways Spain was losing money
1. Inflation: more gold meant its value went down 2. The population was growing: People needed more stuff 3. Reconquista: no more artisans or business people 4. Taxes: depending on what family you were born into
what is LXXIV
A group of workers who share and work the same skill
Spain is now very
Spain would take out ----- from other countries
What is 17
What is 40
What is 90
The Ca$h crops from the Spanish colonies would go to
The loans they need to pay back
What is I
What is V
what is 789
Unlike the Spanish Catholics the Dutch were
The Spanish would heavily ------------- the Dutch
tax the Dutch.
The Spanish fought the Dutch for ------- and eventually stopped due to it being -------
11 years; too expensive
what is CCXLII
Rembrandt van Rijn
He was a Dutch artist. His painting were very dark and very dull. He paints usually portraits or people.
Jan Vermeer
Painted women usually who were doing work and indoor. These 2 paintiers painted normal merchants and everyday average people, not rulers or monarchs.
what is 789
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
this was a massacre between the Catholics and the Huguenots. The Catholics were massacering the Hugenots.
-------------- was marrying ---------------- on the day of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
Henry of Navarre; Catherine de Medici
What was the point of the St. B day massacre
The logic was to kill Henry to prevent a Protestant king
When Henry gets married what is his title
Henry IV.
What dynasty does Henry IV start
This became the Bourbon dynasty in France.
Henry then converted to Catholicism because
he was getting hate and pressure so he accepted this and became Catholic.
Henry then converting to Catholicism freaked out the Huguenots because
they don’t have any a Protestant king anymore to fight for them.
Edict of Nates (Knots)
This said that the Hugenots were protected and could worship and live in France.
How did Henry IV die
A super-duper Catholic stabbed Henry in a carridge.
What is 89
What is C
What is 150
After Henry IV dies who takes over
Louis XIII (13)
Louis wanted -----------not ------------
power; responsibility
Louis XIII hired who to take over all of his responsibility
Cardinal Richealeu
What does Richealeu tell cities of Protestants to do
to take down their walls so they cant attack France then hide.
What does Richealeu tell cities of Nobles to do
to take down their walls so they cant attack France then hide.
Nobles were
rich and powerful French families EX; Kardashians
A local govt worker that has a certain amount of power Ex; Police, tax collecter.
Richealeu then gets France involved in the ------- war
30 years war
why did Richealeu get france involved in the 30 years war
limit the Hapsburgs power
The idea that nothing can be known for certain (im not sure about this one)
Who was Micheal de Montaigne (we hate him)
He was the writer that pushed the idea of the essay and He noticed that old ideas were replaced with new ones. He believed that the ideas we have now are just waiting for new ideas to take its place. Therefore nothing would be known for certain
Micheal de Montaigne believed that you should ------
get your ideas on paper but not in a whole book like 10 pages
Rene Descartes
He believes that all things that think exist. (I think therefore I am) Cogito ergo sum
Louis XIV
He was 4 years old when he took over the throne so he got a cardinal advisor named Cardinal Mazarin. Louis (14)
Cardinal Mazarin
This cardinal was the successor to Richealeu. Nobles hated him because he raised taxes and strengthened the central government. This made the Nobles upset. Adding these taxes leads to the Fronde.
The Fronde
The Fronde was a noble uprising against Cardinal Mazarin as a result of Mazarin imposing taxes onto the nobility. This was to get Mazarin out of power. The Fronde doesn’t succeed.
Why doesn't the Fronde succeed
The Nobles behind the uprising were not agreeing or on the same page. There was a lot of infighting and unorganized Mazarin did not take this lightly when the nobles attacked him so when people got caught they would be violently and publicly punished. This brought the nobles down and made them step back.
Mazarin's death
people were happy and having fun. There was no next cardinal.
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Colbert was the minister of Finance for France. He was a nerd/IB student and teaches/ influences Louis. His job is to make sure France is running correctly.
What did Jean Baptiste Colbert do
He also relied on the favorable balance of trade where you sell more than you buy. Colbert also believed that if French businesses were doing good then they could do good for France so he lowered taxes and had low-interest loans available for French business Colbert also raised a tariff on imported goods and they would have taxes on them so when people would see the expensive foreign goods and the cheap French goods they would buy the French ones.
War of the Spanish Succession
It was the longest, largest and the last of Louis XIV wars.
Charles II
Charles II of Spain dies and has no heir. He had no heir because he was inbreed on purpose. Charles also is sterile and can't have kids. Since Charles doesn't have a child he can name anyone to be his king.
Who does Charles take as his heir
Phillip of Anjou, Louis XIV grandson
Why was Charles taking Phillip as his heir not good
This is not good for Spain or any other countries because there are now 2 French people controlling the 2 biggest countries in Europe
The Grand Alliance
was formed with other countries to prevent the 2 thrones coming together. The result of this war against the Alliance and Louis XIV was a draw.
They then make the Treaty of Utrecht. The 2 things the treaty said were that
Spain had to give Britain Gibraltar The Spanish and the French thrones could never combine and become 1 throne but the bourbons could still stay on the throne in France and Spain.
This was the lowest class which worked for a noble and were very poor so they needed shelter and food in exchange for labor.
West Serfs vs. Central Serfs
The western European serfs were free once their debt with their noble was gone and some places had laws to stop the use of serfs. The opposite of this was happening in Central Europe.
Charles IV
He is the Austrian Hapsburg king and gets land from Hungary, Italy, Germany, and Croatia. These were very diverse countries because of their language and religion. This made keeping the countries together harder.
Did Charles IV have a son or daughter
Maria Theresa - This was Charles VI’s daughter.
What did Charles IV do so his daughter can rule
So Charles VI then went to all the territories he owned and made the local leaders take an oath that they will recognize Maria Theresa as their ruler after he dies.
Maria Theresa
She then becomes the Austrian Queen and has a rivalry with Prussia.
Who is the ruling family of Prussia and where is Prussia
The Hohenzollern family is the ruling family of Prussia. Prussia is where modern day Germany is.
Frederick William “Great Elector”
He was the most important ruler to the Prussian empire. He believed that the key to a safe, strong , secure empire was the army. He spends a lot of resources and money on Prussia’s army
For Frederick William to get money for the army what does he do
he calls a meeting with the nobles to tell them that having this army will make them safer and he also said great armies need great officers and said the great officers would be the nobles. The nobles loved this idea.
Frederick the Great
He was the son of Frederick William and was not a strong military guy and loved the theater and arts.
What did Frederick William do to make his son stronger
one day Frederick II was caught out with his friend and his father charged him with kidnapping so he could teach Frederick II a lesson and beheaded him in front of his son so he would become angry and more of a military guy. It works.
Austria vs. Prussia
They fought over the land of Silesia and this was the War of Austrian Succession. This was called this because it is the 1st war after Maria Theresa succeeds the throne. They fought over this for iron ore, agricultural products, and cotton.
What does Theresa do to get help
she goes down to Hungary anyway and brings her child. She then manipulates the Hungarian King to help her with her baby boy.
Who does Prussia align with