Chemistry - Unit 3: The Periodic Table

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Who created the periodic table?
Dimitri Mendeleev
What are some characteristics of metals?
- shiny - malleable - ductile - solid at room temp
Do metals form + or - ions? Do they gain or lose electrons?
They form + ions They lose electrons
what is the name of the section on the periodic table were metalloids are found
the "staircase"
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which side of the periodic table can metals be found?
left side (left of the staircase)
which side of the periodic table can nonmetals be found
right side (right of the staircase)
what are metalloids?
quirky lil elements that showcase features of both metals and nonmetals.
what are characteristics of nonmetals?
- brittle - dull - do not conduct electricity - pretty colors - typically gases at room temperature
do nonmetals form + or - ions? do they gain or lose electrons?
they form (-) ions they lose electrons
What is Group 1 of the Periodic Table called?
Alkali Metals
What kind of ions to alkali metals form?
positive +1 ions, they lose an electron
are alkali metals reactive?
VERY. they react to H2O. one little drop and *boom* (jk idk if they actually go *boom*)
What is the second column of the periodic table called?
alkaline earth metals. "earth metals"? what are these? elements? oh. haha. they are.
what ion charge do alkaline earth metals form?
+2, they lose 2 electrons
now we're grouping together a big chunk of the periodic table. what are columns 3-12 on the periodic table called?
~transition metals~
yeah, transition metals. good job. now what's up with these guys? gimme some details on the transition metals
- can form ions with different charges :0 - have subgroups lanthanides and actinides (the lil guys underneath the periodic table)
two more groups left. what is the second to last column (group 17/ 7A) of the periodic table called?
ha ha ha haaalogennssss
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what's up with halogens?
- very very reactive. they rlly like my jokes. - i guess that's it for ha ha halogens.
what ion charge do halogens form?
-1, gain an electron
LAST COLUMN OF THE PERIODIC TABLE (Group 18/ 8A)!!! what are these super shnazzy elements called?
the...Noble Gases!!!!!
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tell me about these ~noble gases~
- noble gases are the "that girl" of the periodic table - y'know, unreactive, stable, full valence shell - these guys don't form ions. why? cuz they don't need them.
now it's the moment ya'll have been waiting for. the ~periodic table trends~ don't flip over this card. there's nothing there.
i said don't flip it over
what is atomic radius?
what is ionization energy?
the energy needed to remove an electron from the atom.
what's the trend for ionization energy like?
-increases across a period because with more protons there is a greater force of attraction -decreases down a group because larger atoms have a valence shell further from the nucleus
Arrange the following elements in order of their decreasing ionization energy: Rb, Sn, I, Te, Sr
I, Te, Sn, Sr, Rb
now we know ionization energy but what's 2nd ionization energy?
energy needed to remove an electron from a +1 ion
Which family has the highest 2nd ionization energy
Alkali metals
Which family has the lowest 2nd ionization energy
Alkaline earth metals
what's 3rd ionization energy now?
energy needed to remove an electron from a +2 ion
Which family has the highest 3rd ionization energy
Alkaline earth metals
What element has the lowest 3rd ionization energy
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there's another trend called...electronegativity, but what is it?
The ability of an atom to attract electrons towards itself that it is sharing with another atom (ofc disregard the noble gases, they're all noble and happy)
now tell me about how the trend for electronegativity goes pls
Across a row: electronegativity increases {Smaller atoms with more protons (such as flourine) will hold electrons best} Down a column: electronegativity decreases {Bigger atoms (Fr) have a weaker hold on electrons}
don't forget about REACTIVITY, what is it?
The likelihood of an atom to combine with another atom to increase its stability (yess they always want to become more stable)
what do METALS do whey react?
that's right, they LOSE electrons
what do NON-METALS do when they react?
they GAIN electrons when they react
what's the trend like for metals when they react?
Down a family: metal reactivity increases Across a row: metal reactivity decreases
what's the trend like for non-metals when they react?
Down a family: non-metal reactivity decreases Across a row: increases reactivity
now moving on to electron affinity, what is that?
How much an element wants to gain an electron (again disregarding the noble gases)
Why do HALOGENS have a strong electron affinity?
because if they gain one more electron, they will have a full shell, like the noble gases!
Which groups would have the least electron affinity?
groups 1 and 2 because they don’t want to gain electrons, they would rather lose them
Which is BIGGER? Mg or Mg^+2
Mg, cause its neutral so it has more electrons than a positive ion
Which of the following has the highest electronegativity? S or F