AP Euro - Renaissance

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French for rebirth, new ideas, able to flourish because of wealth
Wealthy Italians give money to artists to make art for them, to demonstrate wealth
Sworn associations of free men, mainly merchants
Common people, lived in Commune cities but disenfranchised (had no power basically)
One man ruled and passed down to son, both title and type of government
Households of wealthy, show off money and art, held business and personal matters, courtiers
Main intellectual component of Renaissance, human nature and achievements are worthy of contemplation, emphasis on emulating the classics, not completely secular or religious, education is very important
The spirit of human power, power of man, from Machiavelli, ability to shape the world around you according to your will
Christian humanists
Northern Europeans taking humanist ideas and mixing them with Christian ideas and trying to reform the church
New Christians
Jews and Muslims in Spain who converted to Christianity
Friar who hated money and power, anti-humanist thought was too secular, very late 15th century, ruled florence during time when Medicis were kicked out 1492, Bonfire of the Vanities
Founder of Humanism, 14th century, ancient Rome was perfection, hunted down Latin manuscripts, ignore "dark" ages
Julius II
pope early 16th century, more political than theological, patron of Raphael and Michelangelo
Leo X
Medici pope, started selling indulgences, heavy spender
Artist, The School of Athens, late 15th-early 16th centuries
Ideas in renaissance art
to depict perfect beauty, realism, color, depth, religious ideas, individual portraits, mannerism
Renaissance artist
Why was the renaissance in Italy
Commerce and trade, banking, feudalism less of a thing in Italy, strong antiquity (remarkable backstory)
Powerful military leaders
King Charles VII
French king, invaded Italy very end of 15th century
Habsburg-Valois wars
Series of conflicts between France and HRE in Italy
Powerful Florentine banking family
Giorgio Vasari
Art historian, 16th century, first to actually use Renaissance in print
Leonardo Bruni
Divided history into ancient, medieval, and modern; late 14th-early 15th century
Platonic ideal
Plato's emphasis on spiritual and eternal over material and transient, goes with Christian ideas, Plato was the hot stuff to Florentine humanists
Late 15th century, humanity is the crucial link with both material and spiritual traits, hierarchy of God down to bugs type thing
Lorenzo de' Medici
Grandson Medici, 15th century, big patron of the arts
Cosimo de' Medici
Grandfather Medici, late 14th-mid 15th century, "Better a city ruined than lost"
Leonardo da Vinci
"Renaissance Man", golden ratio, Mona Lisa, mid 15th-early 16th century
Printing press
The most important invention of the Renaissance, ideas could spread much faster now, people becoming more literate, vernacular
Thomas More
Christian humanist, author of Utopia 1516, ideal society satire, late 15th-early 16th centuries, executed by Henry VIII
Artist, painted Sistine Chapel 1508, David
Christine de Pizan
Writer defending women's abilities, late 14th-early 15th centuries, The Book of the City of Ladies
Monarchs in the Renaissance
gained more power cause feudalism broke down, ability to tax, had armies, etc.
Who were Ferdinand and Isabella
King and Queen of Spain, Spanish Inquisition
Late 15th-early 16th centuries, The Praise of Folly 1509 satire, Christian humanist, middle path of extremism
Alexander VI
Father to Cesare Borgia, pope 1492-1503, political
Cesare Borgia
Late 15th-early 16th centuries, hero of The Prince, ruthless
What happened in 1492
Lorenzo died, Medicis were cast out of Florence, big deal, related to lots of stuff, also Columbus sailed the ocean blue or whatever
What was a result of France invading Italy
Became a playground for foreign armies' wars
Political theorist, late 15th-early 16th centuries, tortured by Medicis, The Prince (1513), the ends not the means, fear better than loved, lion and fox, seen as realistic cynical and ironic, Machiavellian not accurate term
Civic humanism
Educated men should be active in the political affairs of their city, whether through republicanism or Plato's philosopher-king
Author of The Courtier (1528), about the ideal courtier (wow), also ideal court lady, book was later translated a lot and widely read
Social hierarchies
Gender, role of women; race, slavery; wealth hierarchy