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Why did Metternich urge conservative leaders to suppress revolutionary ideas?
He believed conservative leaders would defend peace and stability.
Why did liberals support a free market economy?
They saw it as an opportunity for capitalist entrepreneurs to succeed.
What encouraged revolutionaries in Central Europe to fight the old order?
The ideas of liberalism and nationalism.
Which group did Louis Philippe's policies favor?
The upper bourgeoisie
What inspired the outbreak of uprisings in Europe?
The revolts and changes of government in France.
Which of the following made Paris "ripe for revolution" in 1848?
The economy was in a recession.
Why did the majority of the European uprisings fail?
The uprisings failed as a result of military force and a lack of popular support.
In the early 1800s, the main goal of conservatives was
to restore power to monarchies.
Which event was one of the causes of the French Revolution in 1830?
Charles X suspended the legislature and restricted the press.
How was France's Second Republic divided from the start?
Liberals wanted moderate reform; whereas socialists wanted far-reaching social changes.
What common goal did the revolutions throughout the Austrian Empire have?
People demanded independent governments and written constitutions that defended basic rights.
Why did most of the uprisings fail in 1848?
Military force was used against revolutionaries who didn't have mass support.
What effect did Napoleon's invasion of Spain have on Latin America?
Latin American leaders saw Spain's weakness as an opportunity to demand independence.
Why did Napoleon's men eventually surrender to Haitian forces?
The French soldiers were sick and dying of yellow fever.
How did Spain's new constitution affect the fight for Mexican independence?
Iturbide decided to join the fight for independence to avoid liberal reforms.
What was the main reason Bolívar and other educated creoles admired the American and French Revolutions?
They valued the Enlightenment ideals of freedom and individual rights.
What aspect of the French Revolution inspired creole leaders like Simón Bolívar?
the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity
What was the spark that finally ignited widespread rebellion in Latin America?
Napoleon's invasion of Spain
Haitian slaves rose up in revolt in 1791 after being inspired by
talk of liberty and equality.
What did Father Hidalgo and Father Morelos have in common?
their belief that all Mexicans should benefit from improvements
Why was Simón Bolívar disappointed with the results of the Latin American revolutions?
He wanted Latin America to remain one independent nation.
What was the German Confederation?
A weak alliance of German states headed by Austria
Why was the Prussian army a superior force?
Bismarck spent a lot of money to build up a strong Prussian army.
Why do you think Germany was committed to maintaining its economic strength?
A strong economy contributes to political stability.
Why did Bismarck try to limit the influence of the Catholic Church and socialists?
He felt they drew people's allegiance away from the German state.
Which sentence below supports the conclusion that William II was a German nationalist?
He launched a campaign to expand the navy and the German empire overseas.
What did the Zollverein economic union do for Prussia?
It dismantled tariff barriers between many German states.
What was Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's main goal?
to increase the power of Prussia
What was Bismarck's message in his "blood and iron" speech?
to build up the army
One purpose of the German Social Democratic Party was to...
improve conditions for the working class.
How did Germany increase its power in the late 1800s?
It became an industrial giant.
What was the goal of Young Italy?
to unite Italy into an independent, republican nation
Which Italian nationalist used Realpolitik techniques to strengthen Sardinia's economy?
Camillo Cavour
What was one post-unification issue that encouraged some Italians to emigrate?
rapid population growth
Prince Metternich of Austria found the idea of Italian unification impossible because
Italy had been divided culturally and economically for hundreds of years.
What is one example of Cavour's helping the cause of Italian unification?
Cavour worked secretly with the French to push Austria out of northern Italy.
Why was Cavour concerned about Garibaldi's success in southern Italy?
He was afraid Garibaldi would create a separate republic.
Why did conflict in Italy continue even after unification?
There were still many regional differences.
How did Victor Emmanuel contain political unrest after unification?
He extended voting rights and instituted social reforms.
1. The Congress Vienna was a victory for the conservative forces, which included monarchs and their officials, noble landowners, and church leaders. To preserve the old political and social order, European monarchs worked together to ensure stability and prevent revolution. List and explain 2 reasons the conservative forces wanted to preserve the old political and social order. List and explain 2 of the actions the conservative forces took to maintain the old political and social order.
2. In 1820, the island of Haiti became the Republic of Haiti. Toussaint L'Ouverture, a self-educated former slave, led a revolt in 1789. This revolt would be the beginning of a series of events that would lead to Haiti becoming a republic. Chronologically, list and explain 4 of the events that occurred after the initial revolt in 1789 but before the establishment of the republic in 1820.
3. After the Franco-Prussian War and the defeat of Napoleon III in January of 1871 Germany set itself on a path to become an industrial giant. List and explain 4 of the steps Germany took that would make them so strong industrially that Germany would be second only to Britain.
4. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was crowned king of Italy. Italy was united under one leader for the first time in modern history. However, achieving this unification was not an easy process for Italy. The country overcame many obstacles before it became united. After its unification in 1861, Italy faced even more challenges. List and explain 4 areas of challenges the Italian people and leaders had to overcome from 1861 to the early 1900s.