Physio- Ch 11 Endocrine Glands

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Describe the endocrine system
the major physiological that controls the glands and cells that secrete hormones.
define gland
a group of epithelial cells or an organ that synthesize and secretes chemical substances
what are the two types of glands
endocrine and exocrine
describe endocrine glands
- ductless -secrete hormones into blood stream in order to travel to their target cell
describe exocrine glands
have ducts
Define hormones
a biologically active molecule that serves as a chemical messenger in the blood (this causes a response to organs/cells)
what does the pancreases secrete?
insulin and glucagon
Describe the pathway hormones take
-released from the endocrine gland or cell into the interstitial fluid -diffuse from isf into blood to travel to target cell.
Where is the pituitary gland found?
in the brain
where is the hypothalamus found?
in the brain
where is the thyroid gland found?
in the neck
where is the adrenal gland found?
above the kidneys
what does the adrenal cortex secrete?
Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids
what are the adrenal cortex's primary target organs
liver, muscle and kidneys
What is the effect of glucocorticoids to their target cells? (adrenal cortex)
influence glucose metabolism
What is the effect of mineralocorticoids to their target cells? (adrenal cortex)
promote Na+ retention and K+ excretion
What does the adrenal medulla secrete?
what is the target organ for the epinephrine?
Heart, bronchioles and blood vessels
what effect does epinephrine have?
causes adrenergic stimulation
what does the hypothalamus secrete?
releasing and inhibiting hormones
what is the target organs for hypothalamus secreted hormones?
anterior pituitary
what is the effects of the hormones in the hypothalamus?
Regulates secretion of anterior pituitary hormones
What is does the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland secrete?
Trophic hormones
what are the trophic hormones target organs?
Endocrine glands and other organs
What effects do tropic hormones have?
stimulate growth and development of target organs and stimulate secretion of other hormones
what does the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland secrete?
Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
what are the target organs of the antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin?
antidiuretic = kidney and blood vessels oxytocin = uterus and mammary glands
what are the effects of antidiuretic hormones?
promotes water retention and vasoconstriction
what are the effects of oxytocin hormones
stimulates contraction of uterus and mammary secretion units (milk ejection)
what does the thyroid glad secrete?
T4, T3 and calcitonin
what does the thyroid gland target?
most organs
what are the effects of thyroid glands hormones?
growth and development of the basal rate of cell respiration and regulation of Ca2+ levels in blood
What are the four structures of hormones?
amines, polypeptides (and proteins), glycoproteins, and steroids
Describe amines
-are amino acids derived from tyrosine and tryptophan
what type of hormones are classified as amines?
-Thyroid hormones -E and NE (adrenal glands) -Dopamine ( hypothalamus) -Melatonin (pineal glad)
What hormones are classified polypeptides and proteins?
most hormones (ex. insulin and antidiuretic) [think... poly= most]
describe glycoproteins
proteins that are bound to carbohydrate groups (ex. thyroid-stimulating hormone)
describe steroids.
they are lipids based on cholesterol
what hormones are classified as steroids?
-sex steroids (gonads) -Corticosteroids and sex steroids (adrenal cortex)
What are three things that control the rate of hormone secretion?
-Concentration of ions and/or nutrients -Nervous System -Hormones
Hormones regulate ____ concentration of an ion or nutrient via _____ feedback
plasma // negative
The autonomic nervous system controls secretion of hormones what two structures?
adrenal medulla and other endocrine glands
How are hypothalamus and posterior pituitary regulated
they are directly regulated by neurons of the brain
t/f hormones can regulate secretion of other hormones
what gland stores and releases hormones that ate synthesized in the hypothalamus?
the posterior pituitary gland
explain the hypothalamo-hypopyseal tract
Hormones are transported to capillaries in the posterior pituitary by axons in the hypothalamo-hypopyseal tract