iss 310 - exam 1

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Which is the proper order of civilizations (periods) in Mesopotamia?
Sumerian then Assyrian then Neo-Babylonian
Which period of Mesopotamian history introduced the concept of private parks with the establishment of hunting parks?
With regard to paleolithic man (500,000 to 9200 BC), early humans:
All of the above
In the Prehistoric period (500,000 to 9,200 BC), effective hunting and gathering resulted in an increase in population, thus carrying capacity of the landscape was reached and resulted in movement of humans into more severe environments.
The Nile River Valley is composed of a single drainage system.
In Egypt, during the New Kingdom (1570 B.C - 1085 B.C), which of the following are true:
B and C
Which of the following irrigation techniques used in Egypt was NOT used by the Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BC) and was a technology developed in a later (18th) dynasty?
Use of efficient lifting devices
As one passes through an Egyptian temple what is the sequence of spaces (starting at the entrance)?
pylons then colonnades (peristyle court) then hypostyle hall then sanctuary
To address the agricultural challenges presented by the landscape of Greece, Greeks employed which of the following methods?
Loosened soils via ploughing
An agora is a private place for contemplation and walking.
The Greek landscape contains:
All of the above
Genius Loci refers to:
spirit of the site and was attributed to Greek sensitivity to the landscape
Roman water laws for irrigation and reclamation:
Assured all citizens of an equitable supply
Concrete was developed by:
Etruscans occupied slopes of hills and mountains because they offered a natural defense.
Which group was able to unite the Italian peninsula:
The cloister garden was located adjacent to utilitarian gardens.
Large land holdings in early Medieval time were called:
Manorial lands
Which of the following apply to the medieval period:
B and C
The basis of Western Monasticism was established by the Rule of St Benedictine (529 AD).
By the late medieval era, there were no distinctions between urban and rural settlements.
Villa Rustica and Suburbana Villas were farm retreats and daily retreats for the wealthy French seeking escape from bastides.
In the St. Gall Monastery, the abbot's house and school were located at the:
North end
Nucleated village settlements were:
A, B and C
In the Italian villa, the garden married urban geometry with organic nature.
During the Italian Renaissance, Northern Italy was characterized by a network of larger urban centers surrounded by smaller trading centers.
With regard to the Renaissance, the new conception of urban and rural landsapes was based on classical formalism and linear perspective.
Which component(s) gave form to Renaissance city interiors:
All of the above
The Romans had developed extensive agricultural systems in Spain prior to the Moors.
Typically, the market of a Medieval Islamic city:
was located close to the mosque
Which is a part of Fortress Alhambra in Moorish Spain:
All of the above
Which of the following is an estate farm in Spain:
The design and layout of French country estates was:
ordered and symmetrical
A rond-pont in French design is:
a node with radiating paths or carriageways
A parterre is:
a rectangular garden plot on a terrace
The physical landscape of France offers few constraints and allows for long views to the horizon line.
Which of the following factors led to a new concept of the term landscape in Britain following the 17th century?
All of the above
Railroads in 18th century Britain had a more localized effect on the landscape, while canals and roads had a much wider or large scale impact.
By the 18th century, over 3000 miles of canal were in place, improving transportation in Britain. Which of the following features was NOT commonly found along the British canals?
parallel railroad routes
Which of the following explorations of the 1600s influenced English landscape design in the 18th century.
B and C
The United States has a larger percentage of park lands out of total land area than does Europe.
Which of the following is a purpose for land preservation in European park planning:
All of the above
Which of the following is NOT an International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) standard for National Parks:
A large area affected by human activity
The idea of preserving land traces back to the medieval era when lands beyond urban areas were identified for public use.
The decline of the Indus Valley Civilization (2000-1600BC) was most likely due to:
drying up River Sarawati
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Indus Valley Civilization?
Of the 80 odd Hill Stations, which of them was the most famous (Summer capital of British India)?
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Mughal Gardens in India?
Which of the following is true of a Ting, an element found in Chinese garden design:
All of the above
In Chinese landscape design the universe is represented by a square while the earth is represented by a circle .
Which of the following dynasties encouraged imitation and standardization:
Ming (1328 - 1636)
In China, buildings were incorporated into garden design not as an intrusion into the natural world, but rather as evidence of man's place in the natural world.
Which early Japanese civilization introduced a method of land subdivision called the Jori system?
During which Japanese period did the concept of public spaces and urban landscapes become prominent?
Which of the following are examples of Japanese urban planning strategies?
All of the above
Which of the following is NOT a feature of the Japan "Roji" or tea garden?
maze of hedges at garden entrance
The ancient Sumerians were replaced by the Assyrians whose capital was:
During the Neolithic Period (8000-4000BC), civilizations:
all of the above
History of human settlement began 10,000 BC.
Which period of Mesopotamian history included greater expansion due to horses?
The pyramid of Cheops was the highest structure at 450' until 1889 when the Eifel Tower surpassed it.
When the Lower and Upper kingdoms of Egypt were united under Menes (4000 BC) what was the capital?
Which factors allowed the development of the great temples of Egypt:
B and C
Changes in the floods made it possible for the Dzozer, the 2nd King of the Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BC), to:
Both A) and B)
The essence of Greek site planning was that all architecture was to dominate the landscape.
In the Eastern Mediterranean, during the 3rd and 4th century BC the islands were:
B and C
By the 6th century BC, Greek city-states were:
Centered around a citadel or acropolis
The Greek landscape had which of the following agricultural challenges?
A and B
Roman roads typically followed construction of the colony.
The civilization that preceded the Roman Empire was that of the:
The intersections of the Roman network that ran along the cardinal points(compass directions)were called _____.
The expansion of Rome was successful due to first external colonization then internal colonization.
A cloister garden was a place for:
A and B
Which of the following was a type of large landholding in early Medieval history?
A and B
Contained within the Monastery were:
All of the above
Monasteries were economically dependent on each other.
Which is a function of all Medieval towns and cities, despite their origin?
B and C
Which are forms of dispersed settlements of the Late Medieval period?
A and B
The Benedictine order was known as the "great farmers of the Middle Ages."
Which of the following contributed to a Medieval settlements ability to develop and grow?
A and B
In Renaissance Italy during the 15th to 17th century, the approach to organizing urban and rural landscapes stemmed from:
All of the above
The idea that land had value as a commodity developed when:
15th century AD
With regard to the Italian Renaissance, creativity in both the arts and commerce in urban centers was due to:
All of the above
With regard to Italian villas, which of the following is true:
Florentine estates marked the first phase (15th century) while Roman villas marked the second phase (16th)
Which of the following irrigation techniques from the Middle East were used by the Moslems in Spain:
All of the above
Which space in the Alhambra Palace in Moorish Spain contained the an immense basin, a mirror pool which represented lavishness:
court of lions?
The political history of Spain, from the Medes through the Moslem conquerors) had a consistency of environmental awareness.
The design of Medieval Islamic cities:
followed an Arab arrangement of houses centered around the market
During the 16th and 17th century, which of the following characterized the political context of France.
All of the above
An allee in French design is:
a path or view line through a woods
French landscape design in the 17th century:
All of the above
Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) was credited with:
A and B
By the 1700's, land-owners of all social classes had more freedom in landscape design. Working class people were free to socialize with nobility and to apply landscape design principles that were once restricted to the upper classes.
Which of the following factors caused a later start of the Renaissance in Britain than in France and Italy?
geographical isolation due to Britain being an island
Typical English garden planning forms of the 1700's included the:
A, B, and C
In class, we discussed seven factors that contributed to the nature of English landscape design in the 1700's. Which of the following factors influenced English landscape design of the 18th century?
A, B and C
Under IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) criteria, which European nation has the highest percentage of land devoted to national parks:
Which of the following is NOT one of Haussmann's planning objectives for the Paris:
physically separating outer districts via absence of roads
Both Puckler-Muskau (Prussia) and Baron Georges Haussmann (France) were influenced by British park design.
Engadine National Park, one of the largest in Europe (39,520 acres, 15 valleys) is in:
The city of Chandigarh was designed by:
Le Corbusier
In 1911, a town planning committee convened to initiate plans for New Delhi and the principal Planner was:
Edward Lutyens
The Indus Valley Civilization reached its peak in:
2500-2000 BC
Which is a typical architectural element in Chinese lansdscape design:
All of the above
The "triad of great philosophical and religious thought" in China included which of the following religions:
Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism
Improvements in the transportation and flood control systems were associated with which Chinese dynasty:
Manchu (1636- 1918)
Which of the following is a function of Chinese gardens:
All of the above
One type of ethnic community in Japan is the castle town, based on the notion that placement of a fortified structure or castle was often followed by the formation of a town around it.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Shoin-Zukuri garden style?
use of large features such as fountains and statues
Feng Shui, a Japanese practice strives for harmony between the natural environment, spirits, and the built landscape.
What was the function of the Japanese Imperial city (as borrowed from Chinese culture)?
A and C only
The famous temple of Marduk and the Tower of Babel are attributed to which culture?
Neo Babylonians (612-539 BC)
While earth's history is approximately 4,700 million years old, ancestral human migration is only approximately 500,000 years old.
A unique characteristic of the Mesopotamian culture was the use of horizontal wells called:
Technology of ancestral humans (approximately 500,000 BP) included:
Both A) and B)
In Egypt which is the order of evolution of burial complexes?
mastabas to step pyramids to great pyramids
What types of temples existed in the New Kingdom (1567-1085 BC) of Egypt?
All of the above
During the 2nd dynasty of Egypt (approximately 2700 BC), there was a shift from concentrated agricultural activity to pastorialism and small agriculture.
In Egypt the natural cyles (day/night, annual flooding) favored the conceptualization of nature.
The Greeks were known for their:
Integration with the physical environment
The unique feature of Greek irrigation involved use of:
surface vents
Greek theaters:
Were located on hillsides
Which was an important public open space in Greek urban centers?
All of the above
In Rome, the formation of Latifundia marked the end of the old agricultural structure and led to demise of small farms.
The intersection of Decumanus and Cardo were serially numbered and known as:
The Roman landscapes uniformity led to technical mastery of the landscape.
Rome became a republic in:
509 BC
Rectangular fields were produced by which of the following kind of ploughs?
the ard
Monasteries of Medieval Europe were:
All of the above
There was no common property in Early Medieval villages.
The land held and worked daily for the lord was called:
Fortified settlements of Medieval Europe include:
B and C
Decline of feudalism by the 13th century was caused by:
B and C
In the St. Gall Monastery, the cloister garden was located at the:
Which type of settlement pattern results when migration from established villages occurs and there is subsequent clearing of adjacent land, i.e. "bedroom community"?
Evolved dispersion
With the Renaissance, the individual shifted from an external observer and owner of land to an internal participant in the agrarian economic system.
Renaissance designers and planners established a(n):
formal system based on simple geometric shapes
Which of the following is a type of Spanish settlement:
A and B
Which is a principle of design in Andre Le Notre's Vaux Le Vecomte (1661):
A and B
In French design, a patie d'oise is:
a node with only 3-5 radiating paths on one side
During the 17th century, in France, energy and resources were directed toward:
new country estates
The British landscape is hilly and composed of a series of small-scale visual terrain units, which contrasts with the long units of visible landscape in France.
Which of the following event(s) was/were a product of the Industrial Revolution in Britain?
All of the above
By the 18th century, variation in landscape design grew to include many perspectives, including naturalistic, formalism, picturesque and romantic design.
English garden planning of the 18th century typically included topiary work. What is topiary?
the shaping and pruning of trees and shrubs
Napoleon III commissioned a Planner to redesign the Bois De Boulogne in Paris. He was:
Baron Hausmann
An objective of Puckler-Muskau's design for Muskau Park was to separate natural and human made elements.