osteo final

0.0(0) Reviews
Report Flashcard set

Spaced Repetition

Scientifically backed study method

spaced repetition


Review terms and definitions



Study with MC, T/F, and other questions


Practice Test

Take a test on your terms and definitions



107 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (107)
ribs ossification centeres
POC: rib body SOC: head and tubercle
rib fusion times
-appear in the teens -fuse in early adulthood
Costal demifacet
articulation point between rib head and vertebral body
costal facet of transverse process
articulation point of rib tubercle with transverse process of vertebrae
sternocostal joints
synovial joint between sternum and costal cartilage
costochondral joints
cartilaginous (immobile) joints between rib and costal cartilage
True ribs
ribs 1-7
false ribs
ribs 8-10
floating ribs
ribs 11 & 12
Hyoid ossification
endochondral from greater horns (1st), body (1 or 2 centers) and lesser horns (last)
stylohyoid ligaments
suspend hyoid from styloid process of temporal bone to lesser horns
thyrohyoid membrane
membrane of larynx connecting to hyoid
hyoepiglottic ligaments
attachment of epiglottis to body and greater horns
function of hyoid
muscle and ligament attachment site, speaking
Clavicle ossification
intramembranous from POC: shaft and SOC medial epiphyses
Clavicle fusion times
SOCs appear by 18-20 and fuse around 25
Acromioclavicular joint
synovial joint where the acromial end of the clavicle articulates with the scapula
sternoclavicular joint
synovial joint where sternal end of the clavicle articulates with the sternum
Scapula ossification
endochondral from POC: scapular blade and SOCs(7): coracoid process, inferior aspect of glenoid fossa, inferior angle, vertebral border, and acromion process
(scapular) coracoid processes and inferior aspect of glenoid fossa fusion times
16-18 years
(scapular) inferior angle and vertebral border fusion times
19-23 years
scapular acromion process fusion time
18-20 years
subscapular basin muscle
subscapularis muscle
supraspinous fossa muscle
supraspinatus muscle
infraspinous fossa muscle
infraspinatus muscle
Carpal #
Metacarpal #
manual phalanges #
carpal ossification
endochrondral oss, single center per carpal
arm bone articulations with carpals
radius articulates with the scaphoid and lunate, the ulna DOES NOT articulate with ANY carpals
anterior, palm surface
posterior, back of hand
Metacarpal ossification
endochondral from POC: shafts and SOC: distal end MC 2-5; MC1 SOC is the proximal end
MC1 ossification
SOC is at the proximal end for the head
Manual phalanges ossification
distal phalanges have one OC each, intermediate and proximal have one POC for the shaft and a SOC for the proximal base
femur ossification
endochondral from POC: diaphysis and SOCs (4) femoral head, greater and lesser trochanters, and distal epiphysis
femoral head fusion time
greater trochanter fusion time
lesser trochanter fusion time
femoral distal epiphysis fusion time
Fovea capitis attachment
ligamentum teres
lesser trochanter attachment
gluteal tuberosity attachment
gluteus maximus
linea aspea attachment
adductors of the hip
patella ossification
endochondral ossification from 1 POC that appears at 3-6 years
Tibia ossification
endochondral from POC: diaphysis and SOCs: proximal epiphysis, tibial tuberosity, and distal epiphysis
tibial proximal epiphysis fusion
13-19 years
tibial tuberosity fusion
12-14 years
tibial distal epiphysis fusion
14-20 years
tibial tuberosity attachment
quadriceps femoris
soleal (popliteal) line attachment
soleus muscle
fibula ossification
endochondral from POC: diaphysis and SOCs: proximal and distal epiphyses
fibular proximal epiphysis fusion
12-20 years
fibular distal epiphysis fusion
12-18 years
Tarsal #
metatarsal #
pedal phalanges #
bottom of foot
top of foot
Transverse arch
runs across top of foot
Longitudinal arch
heel-to-toe arch along bottom of foot
Tarsal ossification
endochondral, one center for each tarsal EXCEPT calcaneous
calcaneous ossification
has SOC: calcaneal tuberosity that fuses to the calcaneous at 15-20 years
metatarsal ossification
endochondral; all POCs are the shaft; MT 2-5 have SOC at the distal end for the head and MT1 has SOC at the proximal end for the head
MT1 ossification
SOC is at the proximal end
Plexiform bone
a non-Haversion system of bone organization in non-humans that looks like bricks and consists of lamellar bone sandwiched by nonlamellar bone
Osteon banding
When osteons are arranged in straight lines or bands, only seen in nonhumans
characteristics of human bone
primary or secondary lamellar bone and Haversion systems
Steps of bone growth and repair
1. Woven bone 2. Primary bone 3. Secondary bone
characteristics of woven bone formation
forms quickly, is very poorly organized and is fuzzy looking
characteristics of primary bone formation
laid down on top of woven bone, beginning of sheets called lamellae form, and primary osteons are present without full Haversion systems
Secondary bone formation characteristics
the result of resorption of primary bone, composed of secondary osteons and complete Haversion systems
Woven bone
not arranged in lamellar sheets, small and randomly arranged type 1 collagen fibers that rapidly mineralize making this bone more mineralized than lamellar bone, and it is formed in a lattice structures with lots of large pores
bone remodeling
formation of secondary osteons that replaces and repairs old/injured bone. osteoblasts and blasts work together
bone modeling
formation of bone during developmental years that increases length and/or width of bone in the form of primary osteons. This only occurs on preexisting woven bone or cartilage and blasts and blasts work independently of each other
bone remodeling steps
1. Activation: osteocytes trigger osteoclastic condensation 2. Resorption: osteoclastic activity gets rid of old/damaged bone 3. Reversal: switch from osteoclastic to osteoblastic activity where the border is cleaned and collagen removed 4. Formation/mineralization: osteoblasts secrete osteoid which is laid down as secondary lamellar bone and is then mineralized.
primary lamellar bone
parallel laminar sheets that are dense with very few vascular canals and lacking full Haversion systems
Primary osteons
seen in primary lamellar bone, formed by infilling of large vascular changes that lack well-defined boundary. They are very small and oval shaped
Secondary Lamellar bone
bone laid down during remodeling composed of secondary osteons with complete Haversian Systems (cortical)
basic structural units, osteon with Haversian system
Cement Line
point on secondary osteons where osteoclastic resorption stops and bone formation begins, controls fatigue and fracture process by absorbing shock
Interstitial bone
traces of old primary bone that is preexisting but not yet remodeled, present in straight sheets of lamellae
cells that help absorb the roots of deciduous teeth
newly formed dentin before being fully mineralized
initial enamel matrix
initial deposition of enamel before mineralization that is only 30% mineral weight of normal 96% mineralized enamel
external enamel microstructures
internal enamel microstructures
prisms, striae of rhetzius and cross-striations
transverse horizontal ridges and grooms on the surface of tooth enamel that represent the intersection of striae
perikymata biorhythm
perikymata periodicities
cuspal enamel widest lines, followed by mid crown with the thinnest lines being in the cervical area
bundles of crystallites that make horizontal rows of deposition -full road made up of individual cross striation bricks
cross striations
regular cross banding that represents daily deposition by ameloblasts; -bricks that make up prism road
striae of rhetzius
darkened, thicker lines that cut across enamel prisms on a larger scale and reflect weekly biorhythm -horizontal lines painted across the brick road -terminate at the surface as perikymata
dentin microstructures
dentin tubules, Von-Ebner lines, and Andersen lines
dentin tubules
fluid filled channels that contact nerves and provide sensory function
Von Ebner lines
daily secretions by odontoblasts comparable to cross striations
Andersen lines
6-10 days of secretions by odontoblasts comparable to striae of rhetzius
collagen rich, mostly acellular matrix laid down annually by cementoblasts. They do not continually remodel like bone, it just gets thicker and thicker to keep the tooth in the socket
cells that produce cementum
cementoblasts that become trapped in the lacunae who continue to secrete cementum until cell death
Sharpey's fibers
collagenous fibers that extend through the periodontal ligament to the root cementum
Neonatal line (NNL)
accentuated line in all deciduous dentition and the M1 that is associated with the stress of the birthing event; its presence is indicative of live birth survival
accentuated line
thicker, darkened and more pronounced striae of rhetzius that reflects systemic growth disruption
NNL location
in the enamel closer to the DEJ
Dentition formation
1. dentin horns form 2. Enamel deposits on top of dentin horns, moving outwards 3. Dentin and enamel deposit with dentin moving downwards towards root and enamel moving up towards cusp 4. Crown completed first 5. Roots fully form