Communications Exam 2

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Manipulating a variable or 2 & observing the effects of another variable or 2
Advantages of Experiment
-Cause & Effect Relationship -Gives you control
Limitations of Experiment
Experiments might not be accurate outside the lab
Involves collecting information from a large group of people on a large group of topics
Advantages of Surveys
-Studies how people perceive their worlds -Larger samples(compared to experiments)
Limitations of Surveys
People can LIE 1)to mess with you 2) to try and get what you want to hear 3)try and make themselves look good
Available Data
Looking at things that already exist
Advantages of Available Data
-Non-reactive -Don't have to rely on someone's memory -Great way to study the past
Limitations of Available Data
Sometimes the data does not exist
Field Research
Observing someone's behavior/communication in the natural setting
Advantages of Field Research
-Watching it in real time(no lying) -Lets you study things you can't stimulate in a lab
Limitations of Field Research
-NO Control -Need the ability to be observant in a non-bias way
Unit of Analysis
Individuals Dyads Groups Organizations
Independent Variable
Think Predictor -Impact on others -Cause (only in an experiment)
Dependent Variable
Think Outcome -being influenced/being impacted -Effect (only in an experiment)
Intervening Variable
In Between predictor & outcomes/independent & dependent
Control Variables
variables researchers want to be held constant throughout the duration on the study
Qualitative Variables
Think Type -Looking at different categories
Quantitative Variables
Think amount/numbers -Always counting & comparing
Shape of the Relationship
Positive Relationship: Variables move in the SAME direction Negative Relationship: Variables more in the OPPOSITE direction Curvilinear Relationship: Relationship between variables MOVE from one point to another Independent: NO relationship
Strength of the Relationship: Correlation Coefficient
Further from 0 in either direction (+ or -) = STRONGER
Strength of the Relationship: Genetic Criteria for Social Sciences
.50(-.50)= STRONG relationship .30(-.30)= MODERATE relationship .10(-.10)= SMALL relationship
Brief summary of the study
Statement of the problem, information we don't have but need
Literature Review
A write up of a relevant study,occurrences,theories, models... Includes: Conceptual definitions of Variables Rational or argument for research questions and/or hypothesis Research questions and/or hypotheses
Methods Section
Blueprint of the study that has to include enough detail for you to replicate the study
What is in the Methods Section?
-Type of Research -How was the Study Conducted -Who -Operational Definitions
Results/ Findings Section
What they found objectively (not their opinion) Usually displayed using stats, tables, charts
Discussion Section
Results are restates in "plain english" Not meant to be objective its meant to be persuasive
What is in the Discussion Section?
-Explanations -Implications -Limitations -Future Directions
Assumptions of Uncertainty Reduction Theory
1) People experience uncertainty in interpersonal settings & generate stress 2)When strangers meet the primary concern is reduce uncertainty & increase predictability 3)Interpersonal comm. is a developmental process that occurs through stages, it is the primary need of uncertainty reduction 4)The quantity and nature of info that people share changes overtime 5) It is possible to predict people's behavior in a law-like fashion
Axioms of Uncertainty Reduction Theory
As Uncertainty decrease, Verbal Comm increases As Uncertainty decrease, Nonverbal affiliative expressiveness increases As Uncertainty increases, Information seeking increases As Uncertainty decrease, Intimacy level of Comm increases As Uncertainty increases, Reciprocity increases As Uncertainty decrease, Similarity increases As Uncertainty decrease, Liking Increases
Passive Strategies
Watching someone without being observed
Active Stratagies
Finding out about a target person by asking a third-party
Interactive Strategies
Obtaining information directly from your target person
Critique for Uncertainty Reduction
- Utility (-) -Heurism (+)
Social Exchange Theory Terms: Comparison Level
Threshold by which an outcome seems attractive Minimum amount we should see in a relationship to see as a reward
Social Exchange Theory Terms: Comparison Level for Alternatives
Measure how people evaluate a relationship compared to realistic alternatives to that relationship
Social Exchange Theory: Assumptions about Relationships
1) Relationships are interdependent 2)Relational life is a process
Social Exchange Theory: Assumptions about Humans
1) Humans are rational 2)Humans seek rewards & avoid punishments 3)Humans calculate cost & benefits with varying standards
Basic Premise of Social Exchange Theory
1) People enter relationship/conversations because they are rewarding 2) When we find a relationship/conversation rewarding we want to maintain it 3) When a previously rewarding relationship is no longer rewarding we look for a new and/or better relationship
Critique for Social Exchange
-Heurism(+) -Scope(-) -Utility(-) -Testability(-)
Assumptions of Relational Dialectics Theory
1) Relationships are NOT linear 2) Relational life is characterized by change 3) Contradiction is the fundamental factor for relational life 4) People use communication to manage naturally opposing forces in relational life
Autonomy vs Connection
Conflicting desires to be independent of our significant other and to find intimacy with them at the same time
Novelty vs Predictability
Conflicting desires for the comfort of stability and the excitement for change
Openness vs Protection
Conflicting desires to be open & vulnerable with your significant other and also wanting to be strategic, private, and protective in communication with significant other.
Cyclic Alternation
We choose different poles for different stages of life with our partner
We choose different poles for different context in life
Choosing one pole and you act as if there is no other option
Critique for Relational Dialectics
-Utility (+) -Parsimony (+) -Heurism (+)
Assumptions of Critical Theory of Organizational Comm.
1)Corporations are political as well as economic institutions 2)Comm. is NOT the transmission of info but info perpetuates corporate dominance 3)Comm. is the ongoing social construction of meeting and that issues of power run through all languages & comm.
Information Model
Where a message is treated solely as a message
Communication Model
Considers message, who said it & how it was said
Management Control
Management has primary input in decision making
Employees start to have input into decision making
-Strategy -Consent -Involvement -Participation
Critique of Critical Theory of Organizational Comm.
Logical Consistency (-) Utility (-)
Assumptions of Organizational Culture Theory
1)Org. members create & maintain a shared sense of org. reality 2)Uses & interpretations of symbols are critical to an org. culture 3)Cultures vary across org.; the interpretations within the subcultures are diverse
Communication Performances: Ritual
Regular & recurring presentations of a workplace
Communication Performances: Passion
How people feel about the org.
Communication Performances: Social
Behaviors used to demonstrate civility & politeness
Communication Performances: Political
Behaviors that demonstrate power,control, & influence
Communication Performances: Enculturation
Stories/behaviors that demonstrate what people think it is
Ritual Performance: Personal
Regular & recurring presentations of a workplace
Ritual Performance: Task
When we do our specific job duties
Ritual Performance: Social
Involve relational maintenance informally
Ritual Performance: Orginizational
Formal event help by the org.
Critique of Organizational Culture Theory
-Logistical Consistency(-) -Utility(+) -Heurism(+)