Quiz Study 9

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Chapter 9

22 Terms
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- refers to the adaptive way in which the body anticipates needs depending on the situation - help the body avoid errors instead of just correcting them
basal metabolism
- energy used to maintain a constant body temperature while a rest
- the idea that the body temperature matches that of the environment - aka poikilothermic
- use of internal physiological mechanisms to maintain an almost constant body temperature - aka homeothermic
- various biological processes that keep body variables within a fixed range
negative feedback
- processes that reduce discrepancies from the set point
preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus, or POA/AH
- body temperature regulation is dependent on this - receives input from temperature receptors throughout the body
set point
- a single value that the body works to maintain
- a corticosteroid hormone which stimulates absorption of sodium by the kidneys and so regulates water and salt balance
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
- raises blood pressure by constricting blood vessels - helps to compensate for decreased water volume - example: vasopressin
osmotic pressure
- created by solutes inside and outside a cell - occurs when solutes are more concentrated on one side of the membrane -certain neurons detect the loss of water and trigger osmotic thirst to help restore the body to its normal state
- a hormone released by the posterior pituitary - enables the kidneys to reabsorb water and excrete highly concentrated urine
anorexia nervosa
- Eating disorder characterized by a refusal to eat enough to maintain a healthy body weight
bulimia nervosa
- eating disorder in which people alternate between extreme dieting and binges of overeating
cholecystokinin (CKK)
- released by the duodenum to regulate hunger - closes sphincter muscle between the stomach and duodenum and causing the stomach to hold its contents and fill faster - stimulating the vagus nerve to send a message to the hypothalamus that releases a chemical similar to CCK
- intestinal enzyme necessary for metabolizing lactose - declining levels of lactase may be an evolutionary mechanism to encourage weaning
- the sugar found in milk
lateral hypothalamus
- controls insulin secretion and alters taste responsiveness - stimulation of this increases the drive to eat - damage to this area cause aversion to food
- produced by the body's fat cells to signal the brain to increase or decrease eating - low levels increase hunger, high levels reduce eating and increase physical and immune system activity
neuropeptide Y (NPY)
- inhibitory transmitter - blocks the satiety action of the paraventricular nucleus and provokes overeating
vagus nerve
- conveys information about the stretching of the stomach walls to the brain - *the main signal to stop eating is the distention of the stomach
ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)
- output from the VMH inhibits feedings - damage to the nucleus leads to overeating and weight gain