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Algerian War Noun Check

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dey
Turkish nominal ruler of the Northern region of Africa (Regency of Algeris, Tripoli, and Tunis)
jihad
holy war which united Arab and Berber clans in resistance against French colonization
assimilation
movement led by Fehat Abbas which fought for equality between Muslim Algerians and French Citizens
self-determination
concept popularized following World War II; Churchill and FDR drew up Atlantic Charter which pledge to support self-determination
'white supremacy'
myth of it destroyed by French, British, and Dutch defeat in Southeast Asia by Japan during World War II
guerrilla war
type of warfare in which smaller groups launch small quick attacks against more orthodox militaries; used by the FLN during Algerian war
torture
used to extract information from FLN members especially during the Battle of Algeris
collective punishment
reprisals against whole community due to renewed violence of FLN in early 1955
"ineffectual politics" congress
Abbas referring to repression following Philippeville killings; results in first FLN Congress in Soummam Valley aimed at creating framework for independent state
Algerian Algeria (Algérie algérienne)
Name used to describe an Algeria led by Muslim Algerians
French Algeria (Algérie francaise)
Name used to describe an Algeria under the control of pied noirs and French govenrment
ceasefire
negotiated within the Evian Accords however OAS actions following referendum led to continued violence
referendum
held by the French government within France in which voters voted for against freeign Algeria; 99.72% in favor of liberation
"regrouped" Algerian villages
French military reorganized Muslim Algerians into villages in the desert; some comparisons to Nazi internment camps or Japanese internment camps in US
refugee camps
camps in Tunisia and Morocco for feeing Muslim Algerians
quadrillage
It was a strategy where the French divided up the countryside into grids, which army units would systematically patrol to seek out guerrilla bands.
haik
It means veil. It was used by the FLN as a weapon of war, either wearing it as a symbol of resistance towards the French, or discarding it when they wanted to mingle with pied noir crowds on missions.
Algerian emigration
Algerians moving to France doubled during this period. 2 million Algerians were forced to move out of the countryside and to escape the situation many went to Tunisia and Morocco where they were recruited by the FLN guerrilla groups.
resistance
Played a key role in unifying Algerians and drawing the civilian population into the struggle.
"revolutionary" schools
Run by the FLN and offered evening classes to combat illiteracy, and at the same time spread ideas of resistance and revolution during the war
"the suitcase or the coffin"
It is a common used phrase referring to the pied noirs that were caught in between the OAS and the FLN fighting after the war. It refers to them having to make a choice to leave or die.
" one-party state"
FLN became the sole political party in Algeria banning Communist and Socialist parties and placing the UGTA under its control
amnesty laws
These were passed to pardon the former OAS members and by 1968 all had received officials pardons.
scorched earth policy
It is a last-ditch attempt by OAS to deter a hostile takeover by making the target company unattractive to the potential acquirer. This policy devastated economic potential and hindered recovery.
dislocation/displacement
In 1962, Algeria was still a predominantly rural society. Displacement of the rural population to the cities during the war created massive social problems.
"Algerian socialism"
The economic policies of the new government. Involved widespread state involvement in the economy.
"self-management"
Workers took control of factories and businesses to keep them going after the departure of their European managers in a government sponsored system which was met with varied success.
" neo-colonialism "
It describes the continuing economic control that industrialized countries have over their former colonies. Ben Bella denounced this concept
anti-Algerian riots
result of mass emigration of Algerian workers to France. After the deaths of Algerian workers in these conflicts, the Algerian government stopped all emigration for a while.
"safety valve"
Ben Bella's government did not favor emigration to France, but saw it as an important tool to ease the pressure on the labor market, and to improve the balance of payments through the money sent back to Algeria by emigrant workers to support their families.
Berbers
One of the ethnic groups in Algeria. They predated the Arabs and had a different culture, though they shared language and religion. They would sometimes have conflicts with the Arabs
Arabs
The other main ethnic group in Algeria. They had immigrated to North Africa. Their culture was also the ruling culture, as the Ottoman Dey ruled from Isanbul, though he had little control in Algeria. They were Muslim and would have conflicts with the Berbers
Barbary pirates
They were pirates who operated out of North Africa, specifically the Barbary Coast. They attacked shipments across the Mediterranean, straining the relationship between France and Algeria.
colons (colonists)
They were also known as pied noirs and would take much of the arable land and grow to be influencial in French politics, even though not all of them were French.
pieds noirs
Another word for the colons, they were the Europeans who immigrated to Algeria. This translated to 'black feet' in English, referring to their profession of winemaking.
Abd Al Qadir
One of the first leaders of Algerian resistance against the French occupation. He united the Arabs and Berbers for jihad, or holy war, against the French colonialism. He eventually was sent into exile, where he ironically received an award from Napoleon III for rescuing Christians from riots. His green and white standard became the symbol for Independent Algeria
Messali Hadj
Led the revolutionary group, Etoile Nord-Africaine. He had lived in France, saw the democracy and inequality for the Muslim Algerians. Formed the Parti du Peuple Algeria, to mobilize urban workers and farmers. He served in WWI, and had socialist and communist ideals.
Ferhat Abbas
Wanted equality and citizenship for Muslim Algerians, or assimilation. Basically, removal of French privilege and Muslim rights.
Abdul-Hamid Ben Badis
Led the religious movement, Association des Ulema, and wanted to reinstate Muslim principles, but little came of it.
Leon Blum
A socialist who led the Popular Front, which was more sympathetic towards the Muslims. They proposed the Violette plan.
Ferhat Abbas
Formed the Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto, originally wanted connections with France, but changed his mind after the war broke out.
Charles de Gaulle
A French leader. He was lifted up by the Committee of Public Safety to try and keep Algeria as part of France, but he ended up supporting Algerian independence. He pushed through the Constantine Plan. A coup against him was attempted, and failed. The OAS tried many times to assassinate him too.
Georges Catroux
Governor of Algeria, he recognized the need for reform. The reforms were similar to that of the Violette plan, but were rejected as too little too late.
FDR
Helped draw up the Atlantic Charter, and pledged support for self-determination. President of America
Winston Churchill
Helped draw up the Atlantic Charter, and pledged support for self-determination. Prime Minister of the UK
Messali Hadj
Algerian nationalist. Leader of Etoile Nord-Africaine (North African Star): aimed to protect rights of migrant workers in France. He was the most revolutionary of the nationalist movement - wanted complete independence with no links to France . Had political goals such as press freedom, Arabic schools, confiscation of large estates, parliament elected by universal suffrage and independence. In 1937 he returned back to Algeria and formed the Party of Algerian People, where he tried to mobilize urban workers.
Ahmed Ben Bella
In 1947 created Organisation Speciale. 1954: formed Front de Liberation National (FLN) - planned armed uprising to rid Algeria of France. He later became the first leader of an independent Algeria.
Kateb Yacine
Algerian poet, novelist, playwright. His move Nedjma (1956) describes intra-clan conflict of Algerian society under French colonial rule
Pierre MendĂšs France
Prime minister of France. Said that he would go to war to retain control of Algeria, because Algeria was part of the French Republic aka Metropolitan France
harkis
Algerians that didn't want algerian indepence and were against the FLN. They supported the french during the war.
French conscripts
Universal military conscription as a condition of citizenship. This was a way for France to have continued manpower throughout the war.
Saadi Yacef
Was an extremely influential FLN leader. His arrest ended the battle of Algiers.
Maurice Audin
Was a French mathematics assistant at the University of Algiers. Member of the Algerian communist party. Activist in anti colonialist cause. He dies under torture by the French state during the Battle of Algiers. This led to widespread controversy over torture
General Salan
French Army general. Served as the fourth French commanding general during first Indochina war. Was one of four generals who organized the 1961 Algiers Putsch operation. He sought to prevent Algeria from gaining independence from France. 1961-1962 he led OAS in a campaign of terror against the government of Charles de Gaulle in both France and Algeria before being captured, tried and imprisoned.
Sakiet-Sidi-Youssef
Feb 8, 1958: Tunisian village that was bombed by French forces in belief that it was serving as a refuge for Algerian independence fighters. Sparked international outcry and helped precipitate end of Algerian war.
Frantz Fanon
French psychiatrist. Worked at a French hospital in Algeria, was responsible for treating the psychological distress of French soldiers and officers who carried out torture in order to suppress anti-colonial resistance. Was also responsible for treating Algerian torture victims. Wrote "A Dying Colonialism" and "The Wretched of the Earth"
Jean-Paul Sartre
French philosopher. Called for Algerian independence. Sympathized with soviet communism and Marxism. Wrote the introduction to Fanon's "The Wretched of the Earth" and Alleg's "The Question"
Albert Camus
French intellectual and philosopher. He was criticized for his failure to speak out against French atrocities in Algeria. Said that although he was critical of French actions, he identified with the pieds noirs' position. Had a falling out with Sartre
Francis Jeanson
Was a French political activist known for his commitment to the FLN during the Algerian war.
Maurice Papon
Paris head of police. One of the people to give orders for the French national police to attack pro FLN demonstrators in the Paris Massacre of 1961. The French government later tried to censor information about the massacre.
Simone de Beauvoir
One signatory of Manifesto of the 121, strongly associated with Sartre
Houari BoumediĂšne
After the Algerian War and Ben Bella taking over as the first leader, Bella was overthrown by this person in a military coup. He was the minister of defense and former head of the FLN.
Manifesto of the Algerian People (Manifeste du Peuple Algérien)
Signed during WW2 by Ferhat Abbas. Called for constitution (equality, land reform, Arabic as official language, Muslims in government, freedom for political prisoners). De Gaulle acknowledged this, but didn't do anything.
ÉgalitĂ©
Members of the banned Algerian's People Party (PPA) joined the AML (Friends of the Manifesto & Liberty created by Ferhat and Hadj) and created this newspaper which was very popular.
Fanon's The Wretched of the Earth
About the impact of colonialism on Africa, liberation of the third world, and economical/psychological effects of imperialism on colonized people. Believes violence is the only means to liberation.
Fanon's A Dying Colonialism
Work examined the impact of colonialism on Africa as a whole, the liberation of the Third World, and the economic and psychological effects of imperialism on colonised people. Author believed that it was only through violence that colonised people could free themselves
Henri Alleg & La Question
This historian was a journalist and exposed horrors in Algeria and was a left-wing intellectual. His work discusses his experience with French torture.
Manifesto of the 121
Jean Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Françoise Sagan, and the actress Simone Signoret wrote this to show growing opposition to the war among French intellectuals. Had a major impact on public opinion and inspired demonstrations in France.
Violette Plan
An extension of French citizenship/full rights to certain Muslims, like army officers, university graduates, professionals, and elected officials. Abbas and moderates liked the initiative, but Hadj called it an instrument of colonialism.
Atlantic Charter
Statement about American/British goals for world after WW2. FDR and Churchill talked about self-determination, and the UN supported this and human rights.
1958 Constantine Plan
De Gaulle made this. It would industrialize Algeria's economy, increase employment. It failed because it didn't weaken support for Algeria's nationalist movement or the GPRA.
Evian Accords
Officially ended the war with French army in AL for 5 years. France could lease Mersel-Kebir for 15 years. Europeans got dual nationality, AL citizenship, or privileged foreign residents. Property respected.
Tripoli Plan
Nationalist leaders met in May 1962 to work out a plan to transform the FLN from a liberation movement into a political party. The plan called for land reform, nationalization of industry/services, non-alignment and anti-colonialism
Algiers
Largest and most cosmopolitan city in Algeria. It was divided by the Casbah and the French quarter.
Morocco
Country was a French protectorate in 1912. Although it was technically under French control, the country was still theoretically under the rule of its sultan. France gives independence to this country in March 1956. FLN guerrillas were able to hide out/seek shelter in this neighboring state. The French army forced a civilian aircraft from here carrying FLN leader Ben Bella to land in Algeria. Later, this country fought a short war with Algeria over a section of their shared border(Oct. - Nov. 1963).
Tunisia
France gave independence to this nation in March 1956. FLN guerrillas were able to hide out/seek shelter in this country. The nation wanted to revise its border with Algeria due to oil reserves found on the Algerian side.
departments (Algiers, Oran, Constantine)
3 cities specifically under French control and considered a part of Metropolitan France
Metropolitan France
Mainland France
Casbah
The Muslim quarter of Algiers
Mersel-Kebir
A naval base that France was allowed to lease for 15 years following the Evian Accords.
Morice Line
An electrically charged wire fence along the border of Tunisia and Algeria. It was an attempt to isolate the FLN from recieving arms and other aid. It had minefields, barbed wire, electrified fences, watchtowers, etc. There were also cannons that fired automatically in some sections.
Franco-Prussian War
France's move to integrate Algeria into France may have been a result of France's losing the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871). France had to cede Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia, a loss of territory.
World War I
Algerian nationalist movement has its roots in WWI. 173,000 Algerians fight in the French army, and thousands more help the war by working in French factories. They were "exposed to the workings of democracy" which the French did not allow them.After WWI, thousands of Algerians move to France to work and experienced low pay and bad working conditions.
World War II
80,000 Algerian soldiers fight in France. Colonial officials declare loyalty to the Vichy Government. US and UK land troops in Algeria in 1942 to help the Allies. Colonial authorities join Allies instead of the Vichy gov. (switch to Free French). Algeria is used as a base by the Allies in North Africa. Increases nationalism and the desire for democracy and independence.
VE Day (5/8/45)
France celebrates Allied victory in WWII. Algerian nationalists use day that French were celebrating to stage a protest for Algerian independence. It spread violence and led to the SĂ©tif Massacre.
SĂ©tif Massacre
A Massacre in SĂ©tif spreading from the protests and celebrations of VE day. Pied noirs and French authorities have harsh responses. The violence by both. pied noirs and the Algerians spreads throughout Algeria, and is a large cause of the war. 15,000 Algerians die (per French), while Algerian nationalists say 45,000 die. Bombing of villages, civilians massacred, and moderate leaders that played no part in the massacre (like Abbas) were arrested.
Loss of Vietnam/Indochina
France fights unsuccessful war to keep Indochina. Another. loss of territory that could have influenced France's wanting to keep Algeria.
November 1954
An uprising occurs where small FLN guerrilla groups attack French military and government installations, police posts, radio station and telephone exchange, and French warehouses throughout Algeria. It is the outbreak of the Algerian War.
Philippeville
City where 71 pied noirs were killed, many of them attacked in own homes and dragged out of their cars
Battle of the Morice Line
French used a barricade between Tunisian and Moroccan borders in order to isolate FLN. The FLN fought back by placing bombs
Battle of Algiers
1957. Battle where Algeria was fighting the French for independence, using torture tactics and placing bombs in cafes
Barricades Week
extremists along the pied noirs set up barricades in the street
Petit-Clamart
Most famous ambush attempt against De Gualle where he survived a barrage of machine gun fire
The Day of the Jackal
Movie/book about the attempted assassination of De Gualle
3 July 1962
Algeria became independent and the government in exile returned back to Algeirs
Soummam Meeting
FLN first congress, developed a framework for a future independent state and discussed plans to accelerate the guerrilla campaign
massacre in Paris (1961)
hundreds of demonstrators died in protests against the war and OAS violence that were brutally suppressed by the police.
protest at the Charonne metro station
Anti-OAS protest in Paris where more civillians were brutally killed by police
coup by generals in Algiers (1961)
four right-wing army generals (including General Salan) made an unsuccessful attempt to seize power in Algeria to prevent the French government from proceeding with plans to grant independence (the coup failed after four days).
Foreign Legion
an army of mercenaries to assist French colonial expansion in Africa.
North African Star (Etoile Nord-Africaine)
Led by Messali Hadj, and aimed to protect the rights of these migrant workers.
Party of the Algerian People (Parti du Peuple Algérien - PPA)
Organized by Messali Hadj after returning from France. Tried to mobilize urban workers and peasant farmers, but was soon banned by the French authorities.
Association des Ulema
Led by Ben Badis. He believed that Algerian nationalism could only succeed with a return to the principles of Islam (conservative outlook)The movement was significant in stirring up a sense of religious and national consciousness among Algerians, it did not play a practical political role in the growth of resistance.
Friends of the Manifesto and Liberty (Amis du Manifeste et de la Liberté or AML)
Ferhat Abbas, Messali Hadj, and others joined this organization to work together for independence. Supporters of the banned PPA also joined, and they established the ÉgalitĂ© newspaper, which had 50,000 leaders. This organization arranged demonstrations in many towns to demand the release of Messali Hadj and independence for Algeria
Union Démocratique pur le Manifeste Algérien (UDMA)
Repercussions of Setif massacre caused Ferhat Abbas to form this organization, which called for a free, secular, and republican Algeria, loosely federated with France.
Organization Spéciale
In 1947, militant leaders formed this faction, which dedicated itself to winning independence for Algeria through an armed struggle. Ahmed Ben Bella was one of the founding members.
Front de Libération Nationale (FLN)
In Cairo in 1954, Ben Bella and others formed this influential organization which planned an armed uprising to free Algeria from France.
Free French
Led by General Charles de Gaulle. This group rejected the Vichy government as not representing the French people and formed a government in exile. At around 1942, Algeria switched its position to support this side.
Organisation de l'Armée SecrÚte (OAS)
In 1961, extremist pieds noirs and mutinous French generals formed a violent vigilante army to wage a war against Muslim Algerians and the French government itself when the government agreed to negotiate with the Algerians.
The Voice of Fighting Algeria
A radio station that broadcast news about the resistance struggle. Organized by Algerians in exile and operated from Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and Syria. Led to an unprecedented demand for radios in Algeria.
Francis Jeanson & Jeanson Network
A financial aid network supporting the FLN. It was created by Francis Jeanson, who was a philosopher and editor of the journal Les Temps modernes. Aimed to raise funds for the FLN and help deserters and FLN operatives in hiding. By 1960, it had 4000 active members in France. Played a crucial role in supporting the FLN financially. By 1961, 80% of the group's funding came from Algerian workers in France. All of this money was moved out of the country in secret. This organization was responsible for handling most of the money. When the leaders were arrested and put on trial, they used the opportunity to make anti-war speeches in court, which gained wide publicity.
Communist and Socialist Revolutionary parties
Algerian political party that was banned after the new government was installed. The FLN became the sole party, so Algeria was a one-party state.
General Union of Algerian Workers (UGTA)
The largest trade union in Algeria. Was placed under the control of the FLN to avoid any opposition.
Ottoman Empire
At the beginning of the 19th century, Algeria was a part of this empire. However, the dey administrated over Algeria with little direct control. They did share common cultural practices ( Arabic language & Islam)
Popular Front
French government led by socialist Leon Blum, came into power in 1936. They were sympathetic towards the notion of reform and as a result was the Viollete plan in 1939
Vichy government
During WWII, the northern part of France was controlled by German occupation. The southern part had it's capital in Vichy and was ruled by a French government that was in collaboraion with Nazi Germany. Led by Marshal Petain
Allied vs. Axis
North Africa became an important area of conflict between the Allied v. Axis armies. 1949 there was fierce fighting in Eithipoa, Libya, and Tunisia. United States & Britain helped allied armies by landing troops in Morocco and Algeria.
United Nations
Contributed to change world order, proclaimed a commitment to uphold human rights and self determination. (Provided support for Algeria during the war)
Nazis
German fascist regime led by Hitler; invaded France + collaborate w/ Vichy government; showed horror of racism and colonialism; embarrassed France w/ loss
National Assembly
Algeria's first parliament, elected in September 1962. Chose Ahmed Ben Bella as Algeria's first leader.
Committee of Public Safety
Organization formed by pieds noir with army leaders in Algeria; created after suspicions of the intentions of the French government (abandoning them and negotiating independence)
Fifth Republic
instituted when de Gaulle became president; replacement of unpopular Fourth republic (failure in Indochina + weak governmnts)
Gouvernement Provisoire de la République Algérienne (GPRA)
government in exile created in September 1958 under Ferhat Abbas; operated out of Tunis and Cairo; recognized by Arabs and communists; negotiated independence
Arab League
Organization of Arab countries meant to establish relations and encourage collaboration; Arab nationalism
African liberation movements
newly independent Algeria supported African countries fighting for independence; denounce neo-colonialism
African Unity (OAU)
Algeria founded member in 1963; goals: encourage political/economic development and fight colonialism + neocolonialism
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; influence over supply and price of oil
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
organization of countries who did not want to take part in Cold War (not siding with Western or Soviet blocs); no alliances/ defense pacts; mostly former colonies
Martin Meredith
Meredith claims that moderate pied noir were not listened or paid attention to because no one was willing to risk antagonizing the pied noir after the French government struggled to survive amidst strike, inflation and the debilitating war of Indochina. According to Meredith: In the outbreak of War in 1954, the FLN had strict instructions to avoid European civilian casualties. According to Meredith: In August 1955 "Algeria descended into an inferno of violence , an endless cycle of repression and revenge." p.18When the french army withdrew in 1962, the harkis were disarmed. "Many were slaughtered by FLN groups in an orgy of revenge."
Kevin Shillington
According to Shillington, Algerian resistance to French colonization was one of Africa's hardest fought and most protracted wars of resistance to European colonial conquest in the 19th century.
Alistair Horne
"British historian Alistair Horne believes that 'the shots fired at SĂ©tif represented the first volley of the Algerian War". So, when the war started, it was the women who provided the nucleus of anti-colonial militancy, according to Alistair Horne. Some Algerian women played a more active role in the struggle, secretly carrying weapons as well as acting as spies in the French administration. Taking into account the huge discrepancy in wealth, property and land between the two communities - nine-tenths belonging to one-tenth - the excruciating land hunger of the Algerians coupled to their soaring birthrate, racial stresses and pied noir intolerance, and - perhaps above all - the accumulated hatreds of seven and a half years of war, could the Europeans realistically have remained more than a few additional years at best?
Benjamin Stora
Leading French historian of the Algerian War, who believes that French's desire to use Sahara for its initial experiments was another factor that influenced French policy mentions that pied noirs were not a homogenous group; although they were not all wealthy landowners and elite people, they were 'unanimous' in defending for their privileges and united in the shared 'fear of Muslim majority' = strong oppositions to any reforms equality in Algeria aftermath of the peace settlement - FLN was facing a hardship in terms of 'hold[ing] back an exasperated Muslim population which wanted to strike back considers Setif 'massacre'
E.A. Ayandele
Nigerian historian - believed that the Algerian war was "bitter, bloody, and racist'
Guy Arnold
Battle of Algiers, 1957 - he believed that the French lost the struggle to win the 'hearts and minds' of the Algerians even though they received ifnormation to help them win battles through the use of extensive torture
Roland Oliver & Anthony Atmore
Algeria as French colony - they believed that pied noirs were an asset to the French politics and they believed that alienating them could possibly hurt their government In regards to Algerian freedom: "De Gaulle had a difficult task ahead: according to historians Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore, he was faced with 'right-wing generals, embattled settlers, and reactionary administrators'. " Pg. 20Post war relations with France: "In spite of the oppression and hatreds engendered, the relationship between France and Algeria, between Algerians and Frenchmen, had been exceptionally close, and the revolt when it came was almost like a violent quarrel between members of a family. In some respects, at least, the rift took a surprisingly short time to heal" pg. 39
Ivan Hrbek
According to Hrbek, due to French dreaming to have an independent oil supply, their political decisions were influenced much to an extent Hrbek also mentioned that one of the French tactics used in the war, the 'regrouped villages [for Algerians] became concentration camps and their inhabitants became vagrants'; to escape this situation, a quarter of a million Algerians fled across the borders to Tunisia and Morocco, where many of them were recruited into the FLNHe suggests in the reading that despite the high cost in human life and damage, the war demonstrated important lessons.
Alexander & Keiger
In regards to the congress in Soummam valley: "The Algerians developed a framework for a future independent state and discussed plans to accelerate the guerrilla campaign to put European civilians, officials and police 'in constant fear for their lives', according to historians Martin Alexander and J. F. V. Keiger". "In regards to the french strategy of counter-intelligence operatives: . According to historians Alexander and Keiger, these detainees were 'persuaded' to change sides by torture or by threats against their families". In regards to Algerian tactic of international support:"French brutality, atrocities and repression of the rights of Algerians to popular self-determination were debated and attacked in highly public places, tarnishing and weakening France's claim to epitomize 'Western civilization' and carry the banner for the 'Rights of Man'"
John Talbot
"France was historically the champion of human rights, the liberator of oppressed peoples, the civilizer of less advanced societies. The use of torture in Algeria betrayed this tradition and threatened the existence of liberal democracy itself. "
H.C. Metz
"The war of national liberation and its aftermath severely disrupted Algeria's society and economy. In addition to the physical destruction, the exodus of the colons deprived the country of most of its managers, civil servants, engineers, teachers, physicians, and skilled workers - all occupations from which the Muslim population had been excluded or discouraged from pursuing by colonial policy" pg. 37