American Government Unit 5

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The growth of the Presidency most common myth
(Perceived as) all powerful
How many Constitutional Requirements are there for the President
3 of them
The 3 constitutional requirements for the President are
1. 35 years old 2. Natural born citizen 3. Lived in the U.S. for 14 years
George Washington
Precedents - Executive Privilege
What is Executive Privilege
This means to withhold information from congress
Andrew Jackson was the President elected by the
Andrew Jacksons big thing was
Andrew Jackson and Popularity
(based on) strength of presidency based on popular support
Theodore Roosevelt
bully pulpit and "stewardship theory"
Savior model
Johnson and Nixon
imperial concept
Ford and Carter
Reagan - present
a new model?
promised to restore public confidence
a new model?
the new model is hard to tell
What are the 5 Presidential Roles
1. Chief of State 2. Chief Executive 3. Chief Diplomat 4. Commander in Chief 5. Chief Legislator
The Presidents role as Chief of state means to
Symbolized American government
The Presidents role Chief Executive means to
- Power to appoint and remove (agency heads) - Power to grant pardon & reprieve (for federal convictions) - Executive privilege
The Presidents role as Chief Diplomat means
- To make treaties - senate - Executive agreements - Power of recognition
Even though the President can make treaties they have to be ratified by the ______ , and these do not expire
The President can make an executive agreement, and this does not need the _________ _________, but they expire when the President leaves office
senates ratification
The Power of recognition (aka formal recognition) means that the President
can decide what countries can befriend America
The Presidents role as Commander in Chief
- Congress has the power to declare war - War Powers Resolution (1973)
If the President is acting as the Commander and Chief it means that he is in charge of the
armed forces (military)
Does the President have the power to declare war
The _________ _______ is what led to the War Powers Resolution (1973)
Vietnam War
The Presidents role as Chief legislator
- Recommend legislation - Veto Power - Rider - Impoundment Power
The President is not a law maker, but they can
Recommend legislation
The power to Veto means that the President can
Reject a Bill (However this is not final, but is used often)
What percentage from both chambers of congress can overturn the Presidents veto?
What is a Rider?
Something lawmakers know that the President doesn't like but they attach it onto something that the President does like
What is Impoundment power?
Confiscating what they didn't want (signing the bill but not spending the money)
If the president does not want to go on record for supporting a bill but thinks that it should be passed or does not care, then he can...
Do nothing, or let the bill sit for 10 days (then the bill automatically becomes a law)
What are the 3 things that the President can do with a bill?
1. Recommend legislation 2. Veto Power 3. Do nothing
What are the 3 parts of The Institutional Presidency
1. The cabinet 2. The Executive Office of the President 3. White House Management Styles
The cabinet is the
Head of different departments (Helps the president perform their role as the CEO)
The Executive Office of the President
- 10 different organizations 3 Examples are 1. Office of Management and Budget 2. Council of Economic Advisors 3. National Security Council
What does the Office of Management and Budget do?
Help prepare and control the budget (Congress controls the budget)
What does the Council of Economic Advisors do?
Give economy advice
What does the National Security Council do?
- Provide help with the Presidents 3rd and 4th function (Dealing with Foreign policy and Commander and Chief)
White House Management Styles - 2 Structures
1. Loose Structure 2. Tight Structure
The Loose Structure approach is the ________ approach
What does the Wheel approach do?
- Makes the president more accessible - Keeps the President more in the know
The tight structure approach is the __________ approach
What does the Pyramid approach do?
- Only a handful of people know - The President is freer for bigger issues - The downside is that Presidents can be blind sighted because important decisions are made by advisors
The Vice Presidents duties are
vaguely defined
What is the 1 job of the Vice President?
To be in charge of the Senate (and they don't even do this)
Profile of the Federal Bureaucracy Pervasive Myths
Incompetent and unresponsive
Political Appointees
- Patronage - Spoils System
Patronage is defended by
Spoils system led to
the perception of corruption
Merit system is associated with who's assassination in 1881
What act was created in 1883 because of Garfield's assassination
The Pendleton Act 1883
The Pendleton Act established
Civil Service System
Civil Service System
apart of the merit system
The wage system is made up of ________ ________ workers
white collar
Implementing policies of the National government
- Proxy Administration - Outsourcing
In a Proxy Administration the government is
indirectly involved
With Outsourcing the government is
not involved, they give it over to a 3rd party
Cabinet Department
head of departments (has the most people)
Executive Office of the President
about 10 agencies which are not a part of the cabinet
Regulatory Commissions
Given sectors of the economy to monitor, they can fire you
Government Corporations
They pay their way to make profit
Where do Bureaucrats work? (4 places)
- Cabinet Departments - Executive Office of the President - Regulatory Commissions - Government Corporations
Overview of Bureaucratic Growth
- Pre-Civil War - Expansion of U.S. - Great Depression - World War 2 - Political leaders - Public support
What is the Presidents most powerful tool to check Bureaucratic power?
It is to appoint agency heads (leadership)
What are the 3 ways that Congress uses its power of oversight when limiting Bureaucratic power?
1. Funding (Resources) Rewarding or taking away money (appropriation Budget) 2. Investigation into any agency 3. Can pass a bill to say how the operate (Legislation)
In what way do the Courts limit Bureaucratic power?
Due process (no one is above the law)
What is a Whistleblower?
a bureaucrat who reports wrongdoing in their own agency
What does the Bureaucratic pathology Clientelism mean?
Favoritism - they are supposed to be objective and treat everyone equally, not like they are clients
What does the Bureaucratic pathology Incrementalism mean?
The tendency to resist change (in small ways)
What does the Bureaucratic pathology Arbitrariness mean?
Inconsistent application of the law
Presidential reform efforts
Various committees and commissions
The Various approaches to Bureaucratic Reforms
- Privatization - Ombudsman
Outsourcing, to turn those services over to the private sector because sometimes the private sector can do it better
Listens to the citizens complain and then addresses the company on your behalf
The power of the merit system is
job security (they cannot be fired for political reasons)
The power of the Expertise is
that knowledge is power (people who have a specific knowledge are more powerful)
The power of discretion is
leaving the details to the bureaucrats
Who were the 2 political leaders who saw the most dramatic increase
1. FDR 2. LBJ