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Why do we use commas?
*to make our writing more clear *to avoid confusion
Rule #1: Commas in Compound Sentences
Use a comma before a conjunction that joins independent clauses (2 complete thoughts)
What are the FANBOYS conjunctions?
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
Most people know Thomas Edison for his creation of the light bulb , BUT he also developed many communication devices.
commas in compound sentences
Rule #2: Commas with Items in a Series Ex. My favorite candies are Reese's, Snickers, and Twix.
Use a comma when LISTING items in a series (be sure to include the Oxford comma- before AND)
My favorite meals are sushi, chicken parmesan, and stir fry.
commas with items in a series (list)
Rule #3: Commas when Listing Adjectives
Use commas between two or more describing words of equal rank that modify the same noun.
Inventors are creative , practical people.
commas with items in a series (adjectives)
Rule #4: Commas with Introductory Words or Phrases
Use a comma after a word or phrase that starts off the sentence (to separate it from the rest of the sentence)
In retrospect, I wish I had taken my time on my homework.
commas with introductory words or phrases
For instance, Additionally, Therefore, While he was at the store, Before you come over,
Rule #5: Commas with Interrupters
Use commas to set off words or phrases that break the flow of thought in a sentence.
The class, all at once, screamed out the correct answer.
commas with interrupters
Rule #6: Commas with Nouns of Direct Address
Use commas when speaking directly to a person/group.
Tell me, Joseph, why you think that is the correct answer?
commas with nouns of direct address
Rule #7: Commas with Appositives
Use commas when the description adds extra information; do not use commas when the description is needed to make the meaning clear. *adds more information about the subject of the sentence
Ms. Elinoff, your English teacher, loves teaching her students.
commas with appositives
Rule #8: Commas to Avoid Confusion
Use a comma to help the reader understand the sentence/ clarify its meaning.
Unclear version: Let's eat Grandma. Clear version: Let's eat, Grandma
commas to avoid confusion