Psychology 2

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79 Terms
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nervous system
The body’s electrochemical communication circuitry
characteristics of nervous system
-cells connect with 10000 other nerve cells -cells work together to react to a situation
brain plasticity
allows the us to react to new situations
afferent nerves (sensory nerves)
Nerves that send information about the external environment to the brain and spinal cord via sensory receptors
efferent nerves (motor nerves)
Nerves that send information out of the brain and spinal cords to other part of the body
How does afferent and efferent nerves work together?
Neural networks in the brain process the information brought by the afferent nerves, then send messages back to the parts of the body via the efferent nerves
Nervous system division
central nervous system peripheral nervous system
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord. Includes 99 percent of all nerves cells
peripheral nervous system
Nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
Parts of peripheral nervous system
Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Sensory nerves send message to the CNS, then motor nerves tells muscles what to do
automatic nervous system
Takes messages to and from internal organs to do unconscious things (breathing, heart rate, digestions, etc.)
Parts of automatic system
Sympathetic Nervous System - mobilizes your body for action when stressed Parasympathetic Nervous System - Calms your body when stressed
Flight or Fight responses
our natural response to stress
Acute stress
stress related to a particular event or moment in time, and will go away when the moment is over
Chronic Stress
stress that consistently wears at you and doesn’t ever seem to go away
Nerve cells that handle information and process it for a responds
Glial Cells
Nerve cells that support the neurons with nutrients and non-processing support
Parts of a neuron
Cell body, Dendrites, Axons, Myelin sheath
Cell Body
Cell body - contains the nucleus, which power the cell
Receive information from other neurons via axons and sends the information to the cell body
Axons - send information away from the cell body to other neurons and dendrites
Myelin sheath
A layer of fat surrounding axons, the insulated axons move information more quickly and efficiently
Neural Impulses
Information is sent via neurons by neural impulses This is positive (sodium and potassium) and negative (chlorine) ions carrying information via tiny electrical impulses
Neurons communicate via electrochemical transmission. The neural impulses is the electro side of things (another component is chemical)
Synapses and gaps
Synapses - tiny gaps between neurons
Terminal Button
the end of an axons where impulses are converted into chemical signals to go to the synaptic gaps
Synaptic vesicles (sacs)
hold neurotransmitter that send chemicals ver the gap to the next neuron
1.)Hindbrain 2.) midbrain 3.)forebrain
most simplistic, evolved from the brain stem
Brain Stem
controls breathing and other necessary functions for survival (medulla oblongata)
controls sleep and arousal
controls motor coordination and movement
locates at the top of brain stem, mostly sends information from ears and eyes to rest of brain
reticular formation
deals with walking sleeping and reactions to noises
largest part of the brain
Limbic System
Important in memory and emotion, although they do not originate in the limbic system (most basic part of the forebrain)
3 parts of the limbic system
Amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus
works to identify appropriate food, mates and social rivals Important to fear and rage
helps process memories in the cerebral cortex
located at the top of the brain stem, relays information to the appropriate spots in the cerebral cortex
Basal Ganglia
neurons that coordinate communication between the cerebellum and cerebral cortex for voluntary movements
monitors pleasurable activities, stress, rewards, integral in the endocrine system and monitoring blood condition
Cerebral Cortex
divided into 2 hemispheres with 4 lobes each
Occipital Lobe
Lobe that deals with visual stimuli, located in the back of the brain, Processes color, shape, size, and motion
Temporal Lobe
Located in front of the occipital lobe, just above the ears. Involved in hearing, language processing, and memory Connect to limbic system and long term memory storage
Frontal Lobe
Located behind the forehead, involved in personality, intelligent and control of voluntary muscles
Prefrontal cortex
which is involved in planning, reasoning, and self control More intelligent have bigger ones but all have frontal lobe
Parietal lobes
Located at the top and rear of the head, involved in spatial location, attention, and motor control
Somatosensory Cortex
processes body sensations and is next to the parietal lobes. Input from body
Motor Cortex
Processes information formation about voluntary movements, like the frontal lobes, which are next to. Output to body
Endocrine System
A series of glands that regulates some organs by releasing chemicals into the bloodstream
Parts of endocrine system
Consist of the pituitary gland, pineal gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, thyroid and parathyroid gland, and ovaries or testes Works in conjunction with the autonomic nervous system to produce rage and fear
pituitary glands
Located in the brain controls growth and regulates other glands
Adrenal Gland
Located at the top of each kidney, regulates mood, energy levels and dealing with stress Secretes epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine to quickly deal with stress and emergencies
Locates under the stomach, releases both digestive and endocrine chemicals Produces insulin to manage glucose levels, which relate to energy and metabolism
pineal gland
Pineal - Located near the thalamus, releases melatonin to regulate sleep
Ovaries and Testes
Sex related endocrine glands that produce hormones involved in sexual development and reproduction
Brain Lesioning
Permanent disruption of brain tissue which can be removed and studied
Measures brain wave activity to assess possible brain damage or abnormal brain electrical surges/activity. Used for sleep studies
Single Unit Recording
Using a probe (microelectrode) into the brain to analyze a single neuron in the brain
Static 2D images
static 3D image from Xray
PET Scan
Uses dyed glucose to see usage in brain in live time
MRI Scan
Static 3D Image using magnetic force
fMRI Scan
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging - creating a live time image of the brain in action
Using magnetic pulses to temporarily disrupt brain activity in a part of the brain
Collateral Sprouting
Adjacent nerves grow new axons to make new connections
Substitution of Function
A different region of the brain takes over the damaged region
New neurons are created
Brain Implants
adding brain tissue (usually the fetal stage of development) these neurons are more likely to grow and make new connections can also be done with stem cells from blastocyst embryonic stage (after conception) stem calls might also be used to regrow other neurons
How much chromosome do we have?
23 pairs (46 chromosome in total) one in each pair from each parent
molecules that carry genetic information
short parts of chromosome that are made up of DNA
Dominant and Recessive
some gene pair have a dominant and recessive component (ex: eye color, hair color)
Polygenic Inheritance
Personality and intelligence might also have dominant and recessive, but spread over gene pairs
Gene Therapy
Process of analyzing specific genes and turning them "off" and "on" Can help prevent hereditary diseases, both physical and mental
your genetic make up
your observable characteristics