Unit 5 AP Psychology

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65 Terms
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Effortful Processing
processing that does involve conscious effort or deliberation
Automatic Processing
processing that does not involve conscious effort or deliberation
Deep Processing
encoding semantically based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention
shallow processing
encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words
Selective attention
the process where an individual chooses something, in particular, to focus on blocking all irrelevant distractions.
divided attention
the capability to process more than one information at a time
the knowledge and regulation of one’s own cognitive processes
short term memory
is able to hold a few items for a short period of time, comes from recent thoughts and experiences, the ability to remember 7 digits phone number
long term memory
it is a memory that is relatively permanent, is limitless, and contains knowledge, skills, and experiences. (Flashblub)
implicit memory (procedural()
a form of long term memory that doesn’t require any conscious retrieval, independent (non-declarative memory)
sensory memory
memory that often comes from sensory information and it occurs for very brief/immediate moments
echoic memory
a form of sensory memory regarding auditory stimuli
iconic memory
a form of sensory memory that deals with visual stimuli
prospective memory
the ability to remember to carry out intended actions in the future
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that once can consciously know and declare (declarative memory)
Semantic memory
the memory of concepts, facts and meanings of words symbols etc…
episodic memory
the memory of personal experiences
Flash bulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Visual encoding
the process of getting recollection through visual stimuli
acoustic encoding
the process of getting memory through auditory stimuli
semantic encoding
the process of taking information retrieved through our senses and putting meaning behind them
constant repeating of information to help with memory of the subject
organizing items into familiar manageable units; often occurs automatically
the process of retrieving information from out memory without any help ex. fill in the blank
the process where other stimuli help us to remember ex. multiple choice questions
serial position effect
When given a list we often remember the very beginning and last the best
mnemonic devices
memory aid: Never Eat Soggy Waffles
a mental image or best example of a category: Eagle = Bird, Penguin = Bird?
a cognitive structure that serves as a framework for one’s knowledge about people, places, object, and events. Memory organizer
retroactive interference
block of retrieving new information
Proactive interference
the block of retrieving old information
the loss of memory
long term potentiation
an increase in cells firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation often occurring in the synaptic gap.
solving problems through a step-by-step process
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems more efficiently
mental set
the tendency of the brain to continue to use solutions that already worked for different problems
functional fixedness
the inability to see a problem from a different perspective
misinformation effect
the incorporation of misleading information into one’s memory of an event
Noam Chomsky
all languages share basic element, universal grammar
Hermann Ebbinghaus
massed practice can produce speedy short-term learning and confidence while distributed practices produce long-term memory: Spacing effect
Elizabeth Loftus
famous for research on false memories, female memory researcher
Wolfgang Kohler
conducted experiments on problem solving by chimpanzees
George A. Miller
recognized that the human mind can be understood using an information processing model.
Abstract Measures
tests that doesnt use word problems to assess abilities: Matching logical sequences etc..
Verbal measures
tests that use word problems to assess abilities
Speed of processing
the amount of time it takes for an individual to perform a mental task
Fluid Intelligence
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly as when solving novel logic problems; decreases as you get older
Crystallized intelligence
our accumulated knowledge as reflected in vocab and analogies tests; increases as we get older
Flynn Effect
the increase in general intelligence among the population
stereotype threat
when an individualndividual feels at risk of confirming a negative stereotype given to a group
savant syndrome
an individual with a low overall intelligence, but has an island of brilliance, usually autistic usually
defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparisons with the performance of a pretested group
able to give consistent scores
the extent to which a test actually measures or predicts what it promises
Normal curve
bell curve where the highest amount of placement occurs in the middle
the tendency, inclination or prejudice toward or against something or someone
intellectual disability
anyone who scores lower than an IQ of 70
known as intelligence quotient, tests an individual’s performance relative to their age
mental age
the mental processing levels relative to their age, a mental processing level of a 11 year old in a 8 year old will perform better than one who has an average mental processing level
Howard Gardner
Theory of Multiple Intelligence: 8 or 9 different bits of intelligence ranging from naturalist to linguistics and logical-mathematical. “Not just one intelligence”
Robert Sternberg
Triarchic Theory: Analytical, Creative, Practical (Street smart)
Charles Spearmen
argued that intelligence can be expressed by a single factor. G Factor
Francis Galton
was it possible to measure “natural ability” and was influenced by natural selection
Alfred Binet
all children follow the same course of intellectual development, some just develop much faster. Mental Age
Lewis Terman
came to appreciate that test scores reflected not only people’s innate mental abilities, but also their education, native language, and familiarity with the culture assumed by the test