PY101 Exam 1

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153 Terms
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the scientific study of behavior
what is psychology?
measurable & observable actions
mental processes
internal subjective experiences we conclude from behavior
empirical evidence
evidence gained through experimental testing
the roots of psychology start in ancient ______
the _____ was considered the center of intelligence/feeling in ancient egypt & was preserved in the body
argues that human behavior is subject to rules and laws
combined biology and psychology
the idea that mind and body are separate yet intertwined
Wilhelm Wundt
"Father of Psychology"
Wilhem Wundt
established first psychology lab
Margaret Floy Washburn
first woman to receive a PhD in psychology
Margaret Floy Washburn
second female president of the APA
conscious experiences of the world
focus of structuralism
conscious experiences can be broken down into basic elements
what does the school of thought of structuralism say
introspection has limits
what is the weakness of structuralism
william james
psychologist associated with functionalism
purpose and fucntion of behaviors and mental processes
what is the focus of functionalism
charles darwin's theory of evolution
what influenced the school of thought of functionalism
william james
admitted the first woman into a seminar at harvard
mary whiton calkins
first woman to be admitted into a seminar at Harvard
mary whiton calkins
first female president of the APA
all men stopped coming to class
what happened when mary whiton calkins was admitted intoo a seminar at harvard
sigmund freud
psychologist associated with the psychoanalytic theory
unconscious ideas and impulses
focus of psychoanalytic theory
psychoanalytic theory
behavior is a result of unconscious experiences
developed a practice of psychoanalysis
max wertheimer
psychologist associatted with gestalt psychology
school of thought that was prominent in europe in the 1920's
perception and its influence on problem solving
what is the focus of gestalt psychology
gestalt psychology
the whole of an experience is different than the sum of its parts
structuralism, functionalism, psychoanalytic, gestalt psychology, behaviorism, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology
what are the schools of thought
john watson and BF skinner
psychologists associated with behaviorism
observable behaviors and their relation to observable stimuli
what is the focus of behaviorism
skinner box
showed how positive reinforcement worked byplacing a hungry rat in a box with a lever, and every time the rat accidentally knocked the lever, afood pellet fell out
behavior is observable, all behavior is a result of learning, predictable behavior occurs after learning, psychology should be the study of when learning occurs
what are the basics of behabiorism
the ability to choose activities that bring happiness and fulfillment
focus of humanistic psychology
humanistic psychology
emphasizes the basic goodness of people
george miller and ulric neisser
psychologists associated with cognitive perspective psychology
mental processes
what is the focus of cognitive psychology
which school of thought dominated psychological research by 1970s
mary whiton calkins
who discovered the recency effect
evolutionary, social, cognitive, clinical, developmental
main subfields of psychology
a systematic way of finding answers
clark and clark
study in 1947 where black and white children were both given dolls and both children preferred to play with white
segregation results in psychological damage to black children
what was the conclusion of clark & clark
plessy v ferguson
what court case did clark & clark help to overturn
describe a psychological phemomenon, predict when the phenomenon will occur, determine the cause of the phenomenon, explain the phenomenon
what are the four goals of psychological research
scientific method
systematic procedure of exploring phenomena
consult/formulate a theory, develop a testable hypothesis, test the hypothesis, analyze the data, report the findings
steps of the scientific method
explanation of how some mental process/behavior occurs
free of bias, explains behavior, can be proven wrong
characteristics of a good theory
cannot explain behavior, cannot be proven wrong
characteristics of a bad theory
specific, testable prediction about a theory
experimental method
determines the cause of an outcome
correlational method
tests the relationship between variables
descriptive method
describes what is occuring
observational studies, case studies, self reports
examples of the experimental method
method of testing a hypothesis that is often used when variables cannot be manipulated
independent variable
variable that is manipulated
dependent variable
variable measured
experimental group
group that receives treatment
control group
group that does not receive treatment
to make sure you're measuring fact
why are control groups important
qualitative and quantitative
2 general types of data
qualitative data
data that cannot be counted
quantitative data
data in the form of numbers
present at a conference, publish the study, collect a new study
ways to report your findings
evolutionary psychology
explores how traits are selected to aid adaptation in an environment
biological psychology
studies how biological systems give rise to mental activity
cognitive psychology
investigates attention/perception/memory/problem solving
developmental psychology
researches how people change from infancy through old age
health psychology
examines how psychological factors affect health and well-being
personality psychology
analyzes enduring characteristics that people display over time and across circumstances
social psychology
explores how people are affected by others
cultural psychology
studies how people are influenced by the societal rules that dictate behavior in their cultures
clinical psychology
considers the factors that cause psychological disorders and the best methods to treat them
educational psychology
investigates the effectiveness of techniques in teaching and learning
industrial/organizatonal psychology
examines issues pertaining to industry and the workplace
changes in the brain can have a powerful impact on experiences
why is it important to study the brain?
phineas gage
had an iron pole through his brain and survived
the nervous system
a network of cells in the brain and body
receives and processes sensory input, responds to sensory input
what does the nervous system do
2 primary divisions of the nervous system
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
nerves outside of brain and spinal cord
building blocks of nervous system
neuronal structures that receive signals
cell body
neuronal structure that integrates signals
neuronal structure that transmits signals
myelin sheath
neuronal structure that insulates the axon and provides faster transmission
terminal buttons
neuronal structures that release chemical signals
transmission phase, reception phase, integration phase
3 phases of neuronal transmission
neuron fires an action potential, causes the release of neurotransmitters
neuronal transmission phase 1: transmission phase
neurons release neurotransmitters from terminal buttons on presynaptic neurons, bind to receptors on postsynaptic neurons
neuronal transmission phase 2: reception phase
postsynaptic neuron responds to incoming signals
neuronal transmission phase 3: integration phase
excitatory, inhibitory
2 types of signals released during integration phase
neurotransmitter that has motor control over muscles, attention, memory, learning, and sleeping
neurotransmitter that controls arousal and alertness
neurotransmitter that controls emotional state, impules control, and dreaming
neurotransmitter in control of reward and motivation and motor control over voluntary movement
neurotransmitter in control of inhibition of action potentials, anxiety reduction, and intoxication through alcohol
neurotransmitter that controls learning and memory and the enhancement of action potentials
neurotransmitter that controls pain reduction and reward
a now abandoned study of the shape of skull as indicative of the strengths of different faculties
franz gall
psychologist associated with phrenology
medical instrument that records electric currents generated by the brain
functional magnetic resonance imaging
a form of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain that registers blood flow to functioning areas of the brain
transcranial magnetic stimulation
form of assessing brain functions that disrupts activity in the brain using magnets
forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
3 major divisions of the brain
division of the brain that controls motivation, emotion, and complex thought
division of the brain that controls movement
division of the brain that controls survival functions and movement
body to brain and brain to body communication
what does the spinal cord control
spinal cord
carries sensory info to the brain and carries motor signals to the body
controls most basic functions of survival
regulates heartbeat, breathing, swallowing, urination, orgasm
regulates sleep, arousal, coordinating movements
regulates motor function and porcedural memory
controls reflexive movement of eyes and body
substantial nigra
area in midbrain, controls voluntary movements and production of dopamine
subcortical structures
structures critical for psychological functions
sensory gateway of brain
regulates body and motivated behaviors
focuses on formation of memories
processes emotional info
limbic system
what do the 4 subcortical structures make up
cerebral cortex
wrinkly outer layer of brain
corpus collossum
connects the 2 halves of the cerebral cortex
occipital lobe
lobe of the brain that processes visual info, houses the primary visual cortex
parietal lobe
lobe of the brain that processes sensory and motor info
primary somatosensory cortex
located in parietal lobe, receives touch info
temporal lobe
lobe of the brain that processes hearing and object recognition
primary auditory cortex
located in the temporal lobe, processes auditory info
fusiform gyrus
processes facial recognition, located in temporal lobe
frontal lobe
lobe of the brain that processes complex thought, planning, and movement
primary motor cortex
located in frontal lobe, regulates production of movements, cortical area devoted to finely tuned areas, sends messages from CNS to PNS
prefrontal cortex
part of frontal lobe, 30% of human brain, controls rational thought, social norms, sense of self, empathy, attention, decision making
comparative neuroanatomy
all vertebrates have a cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and 2 brain hemispheres
somatic nervous system
first division of the PNS, transmits signals to/from CNS, controls all voluntary movements
autonomic nervous system
second division of PNS, regulates internal functions
sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system
2 subdivisions of the ANS
sympathetic nervous system
prepares body for action
parasympathetic nervous system
returns the body to resting state
endocrine system
communication system that relies on hormones to influence behavior and mental activity