Neuroscience Exam 4

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134 Terms
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decreased sensitivity to a drug following continued use
Tryptophan depletion procedure
reduces 5- HT levels, reinstates depression in previously depressed patients
lack of enzyme converting phenylalanine into tyrosine; interferes with myelinization of axons after birth.
an effective antipsychotic drug that does not interact with D2 receptors- instead blocks D4 receptors in the n. Accumbens
Fragile X
single gene cause of autism; spectrum of intellectual disabilities ranging from mild to severe as well as physical characteristics such as elongated face, large or protruding ears, large testes (macroorchidism) and behavioral characteristics such as stereotypic movements
Neurons in ________ field of hippocampus are very sensitive to blood glucocorticoid level (as released by stress)
Phineas Gage
tamping iron went through his head (prefrontal cortex), causing major personality changes; eventually died of epileptic seizures
Binge Drinking
starts later in life and less influenced by heredity
loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities that were once enjoyed.
the active ingredient in marijuana.
beliefs that are contrary to reality; often involve control, grandeur, or persecution.
is preferred to morphine because it acts faster.
Seasonality effect
higher rates of schizophrenia in children born in late winter and early spring; occurs in city but not countryside.
Partial agonists
block neurotransmitters when they are in high concentration and imitate them when they are in low concentrations
Anti-anxiety medication
concordance rates

in twin studies, these rates for schizophrenia are higher for identical (monozygotic monochorionic) than for fraternal twins

Corticotropin releasing hormone
peptide neuromodulator/neurotransmitter; stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary; most effective in limbic areas
erosion in the wall of the stomach (gastric) or in adjacent intestinal areas (peptic)
was identified as an effective antipsychotic in 1952 by Henri Laborit; dopamine receptor blocker and first generation antipsychotic drug
glucocorticoids (eg cortisol), mineralocorticoids (eg aldosterone), and sex hormones (eg testosterone)
adrenal cortex produces
steady drinkers and binge drinkers
two types of alcoholics
used to treat opiate addiction
serotonin agonists and opiate antagonists
possible treatments for alcoholism
endogenous ligand in marijuana
anxiolytic effects, sedation, incoordination, interferes with NMDA receptors, increases sensitivity of GABAa receptors
effects of alcohol
stimulate release of dopamine from nucleus accumbens
effect of nicotine
dopamine agonists; increase concentration of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens
effect of cocaine and amphetamines
preoptic area
opiate induced hypothermia occurs in this part of the brain
periaqueductal gray
opiate induced analgesia occurs in this part of the brain
mesencephalic reticular formation
opiate induced sedation occurs in this part of the brain
ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens
opiate reinforcement occurs in this part of the brain
orbitofrontal cortex
located at the base of the frontal lobe; serves as interface between mechanisms involved in automatic emotional responses and control of complex behaviors
a disorder of thought and emotion, but not "split-personality"; symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behaviors
Swiss psychiatrist who suggested the name "schizophrenia"
positive symptoms

symptoms that are evident based on their presence rather than their absence


perceptions that occur in the absence of stimuli (often auditory or olfactory)

thought disorder
disorganized and irrational thoughts
negative symptoms
symptoms that are evidenced by an absence of something; in schizophrenia, social withdrawal, lack of affect, and reduced motivation

emotions, moods, feelings; usually a reflection of experiences

repetition of recently heard words
undifferentiated type
"wastebasket" category; various symptoms that don't fit into another category
catatonic type
pronounced motor symptoms are apparent; stupor and excitement phases; imitation of speech and movements can bee seen; sometimes violent, frenzied behavior
catatonic frenzy
overactive excitement; part of catatonic type of schizophrenia
paranoid type
delusions of persecution and grandeur are common; auditory hallucinations are common
disorganized type

severe disorganization, hallucinations are common; only modest recovery is found in this type

schizoaffective disorder
a disorder marked by the presence of schizophrenia symptoms as well as affective disorder symptoms
schizophreniform disorder
similar to schizophrenia but lasts 1-6 months rather than a lifetime
mutations of this gene increase likelihood of schizophrenia and other mental disorders
susceptibility hypothesis
people can carry schizophrenia gene but do not express it unless it is triggered by the environment
dopamine hypothesis
positive symptoms of schizophrenia involve overactivity of dopaminergic synapses in the brain
Henri Laborit
identified chlorpromazine as an effective antipsychotic
antipsychotic medications
diminish thought disorder evident in schizophrenia; side effects include autonomic problems, skin-eye pigmentation, breast development, and tardive dyskinesia
tardive dyskinesia
facial tics and gestures; due to overstimulation of DA receptors
reduced neuropil hypothesis
cortical pathology in schizophrenia - includes significant reduction of the interneuronal neuropil in prefrontal cortex - smaller dendritic length and lower density
birth trauma, viral infections, nutritional issues, maternal stress
causes of brain damage in schizophrenia at or before birth
decreased activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - underlies negative symptoms
Phencyclidine (PCP)
NMDA antagonist that, when abused, produces both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia
atypical antipsychotics
increase dopaminergic activity in prefrontal cortex and reduce it in the limbic system; used to treat psychosis
acts as a partial agonist at dopamine receptors; atypical antipsychotic
Pyramidal neurons or striatal dopaminergic system
two theories of developmental changes - abnormalities in one of these two brain areas are the primary cause of the process that leads to schizophrenia
haloperiodl and chlorpromazine
typical antipsychotic drug names
amisulphride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole
atypical antipsychotic drug names
bipolar disorder
a disorder characterized by alternating cycles of depression and mania
euphoria and delusions; a period of abnormally and persistently elevated, euphoric, or irritable mood lasting at least a week
lithium carbonate
chemical active in lithium treatment of bipolar disorder
lithium treatment
rapid action on the manic phase of bipolar disorder; does not suppress normal emotions; low therapeutic index
major depressive disorder
continuous, episodic, and persistent sadness, hopelessness, guilt, loss of interest; does not alternate with periods of mania
MAO inhibitors
depression treatment; increase release of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin
tricyclic antidepressants
a class of drugs used to treat depression; inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin but also affects other neurotransmitters; named for the molecular structure
electroconvulsive therapy
a brief electrical shock, applied to the head, that results in an electrical seizure; used therapeutically to alleviate severe depression
deep brain stimulation (DBS)
depression treatment; implanted electrodes just below the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex or nucleus accumbens
transcranial magnetic stimulation
depression treatment; applied to prefrontal cortex
monamine hypothesis
depression results from reduced activity of brain monoamines (DA, 5-HT, and NE)
hypotensive effects; depletes monoamines and leads to depression
suicidal depression is related to a low level of this, which is a product of 5-HT destruction by MAO
subgenual medial prefrontal cortex
a region located below the “knee” of the front of the corpus callosum; metabolic activity in this area is significantly reduced in patients with depression
postpartum psychosis
serious mental illness that affects new mothers; lose touch with reality, auditory hallucinations, delusions, insomnia, agitation, anger
panic disorder
involves episodes of intense anxiety (panic attacks)
anticipatory anxiety
fear of an impending panic attack
fear of being away from home or other protected places
Chromosome 15
a duplicated region on this chromosome is associated with panic disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
anxiety disorder associated with recurrent thoughts and actions
recurrent, often disturbing thoughts; unwanted
recurrent behaviors; the feeling that one is obliged to perform a behavior, even if one prefers not to do so
counting, cleaning, checking, avoidance
four main categories of OCD compulsions
tourette's syndrome
linked with OCD; involves involuntary muscular/vocal tics, facial grimaces, and word repetition

compulsive hair pulling

compulsive nail biting
acral lick dermatitis
compulsive licking of a body part in dogs; treated by administration of clomipramine
autistic disorder
"classic" autism; significant language delays, social and communication challenges, unusual behaviors and interests
theory of mind
ability to predict and explain the behavior of other humans in terms of their mental states; autistic people appear not to have this
superior temporal sulcus (STS) and medial prefrontal cortex

there is lower activity in an autistic persons brain in these areas when watching shapes acting with intention, displaying a lack of theory of mind

asperger syndrome
display milder symptoms of autistic disorder; some social challenges and unusual behaviors, but not usually issues with language or intellectual disability
Pervasive developmental disoder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)
also called "atypical autism"; meet some criteria for autistic disorder or aspergers, but not all; fewer or milder symptoms
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
a behavioral disorder primarily characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
"fight or flight" response
behavior response to aversive stimuli
sympathetic activation
autonomic response to aversive stimuli
secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine

endocrine response to aversive stimuli


the aversive stimuli we encounter

stress response
our reaction to stressors
sypathetic adrenal-medullary system (SAM system)
in response to a stressful stimulus, the hypothalamus and the sympathetic nervous system stimulate the adrenal medulla to release epinephrine and norepinephrine
affects glucose metabolism to mobilize energy stores in muscles; increases output from heart; increases blood pressure
released in hypothalamus, frontal cortex, and lateral basal forebrain; result of stimulation of pathway from central nucleus of the amygdala to brain stem
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
release is stimulated by CRH from the anterior pituitary; stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
one of a group of hormones in the adrenal cortex that are important in protein and carbohydrate metabolism, secreted especially in times of stress; released by the adrenal cortex; stimulate behavioral responsiveness, indirectly suppress secretion of sex hormone
Paraventricular nucleus
controls secretion of glucocorticoids
PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder)
acute exposure to very intense stressors, can have delayed stress effects; symptoms include dreams, recall of trauma event, flashback episodes, and intense distress, fear, helplessness or horror
modifying our responses to stress; exerting control over aversive stimuli, increase benzodiapines in brain
when stressed, blood platelets are more likely to clump together
study of interactions between the immune system and behavior (higher stress leads to decreased immune efficiency)
recognize and destroy invasive microorganisms
markers on invasive microorganisms that indicate they do not belong
antibody found in mucous membranes; first defense against microorganisms that enter the nose or mouthph
physical dependence
the unpleasant effects of withdrawal

psychic dependence

drive to continually administer the drug to produce pleasurable effects or to avoid discomfort
reinforcing properties
properties that keep people coming back for more
symptoms following cessation of drug administration after tolerance has developed; opposite to the effects of the drug
positive reinforcement

changes the probability of a behavior that it follows; feels good, so you want to do it again

negative reinforcement
turns off aversive stimulus
incentive salience
an effect of stimuli that are present when a drug activates the mesolimbic dopaminergic system; stimuli with this effect will spark cravings
cognitive symptom
a symptom of schizophrenia that involves cognitive deficits, such as difficulty in sustaining attention, deficits in learning and memory, poor abstract thinking, and poor problem solving
the study of the distribution and causes of diseases in populations
the increased sensitivity of neurotransmitter receptors; caused by damage to the afferent axons or long-term blockage of neurotransmitter release
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
an antidepressant drug that specifically inhibits the reuptake of serotonin without significantly affecting the reuptake of other neurotransmitters
serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
an antidepressant drug that specifically inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin without significantly affecting the reuptake of other neurotransmitters
therapeutic lag
the period of time between beginning an antidepressant treatment and experiencing therapeutic effects, usually several weeks
treatment-resistant depression
a major depressive disorder whose symptoms are not relieved after trials of several different treatments
seasonal affective disorder
a mood disorder characterized by depression, lethargy, sleep disturbances, and craving for carbs during the winter season when days are short
treatment of seasonal affective disorder by daily exposure to bright light
generalized anxiety disorder
a disorder characterized by excessive anxiety and worry serious enough to cause disruption of a person’s life
social anxiety disorder
a disorder characterized by excessive fear of being exposed to the scrutiny of other people that leads to avoidance of social situations in which the person is called on to perform
hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis
a circuit that is activated as part of the stress response; results in the release of glucocorticoids
the process of responding to stimuli and regaining and maintaining homeostasis, including a change in the set point of a system to respond to stimuli that are outside the range of typical homeostatic functioning
allostatic load
the cumulative and collective wear and tear on body systems when there is too much stress response or when the stress response is not turned off