Human Communications (CH1-CH5)

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54 Terms
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the process nature of communication
our interactions with others are ongoing and dynamic
communication takes place in this and consists of interrelated parts that affect one another
the extent to which systems interacts with its surrounding environments
levels of meaning, the literal message
levels of meaning, expresses the relationship between communicators
linear model of communication
who? says what? in what channel? to whom? with what effect?
difference between linear model
person is only a sender or a receiver and that receivers passively absorb senders messages
difference between interactive model
occurs through media to allow multiple people to send information back and forth
anything that interferes with the intended meaning of communication
mead and humanity
We develop our personal identities through the process of interacting with others In our earliest years, our parents told us who we were: "You're smart," "You're so strong," "You're such a clown." We first see ourselves through the eyes of others, so their messages form the foundations of our self-concepts. Later, we inter-act with teachers, friends, romantic partners, and co-workers who communicate their views of us. In addition, we learn who we are and how others perceive us as we engage mass communication and social media
definition of communication
a systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings
Harold Laswell model
who communicator, says what message, in which channel medium, to whom receiver, with what effect effect
Wilbur Schramm model
message, decoder receiver encoder, feedback, encoder source decoder
proof-based on speakers credibility. based on trust, worthiness, expertise, and goodwill.
proof-based on appealing to listeners emotions
proof-based on logic and reasoning
Micheal Foucault and power
deeply concerned with who isnt allowed to speak in a society. specifically, illuminated how culturally entrenched rules define who gets to speak to whom we listen, and whose views count as important
textual analysis
is the interpretation of symbolic activities
qualitative research
interpretive techniques including textual analysis and ethnography used to understand the character of experience, particularly how people perceive and make sense of communication
rhetorical criticism
the process of examining a text to see how it works communicatively
mediated communication
Any communication that is carried out using some channel other than those used in face-to-face communication.
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations and activities
factors that we perceive / stimuli in our surroundings (smells, noises, body, etc.)
personal construct
mental yardstick that measures a person or situation along a bipolar dimension of judgement
cognitive schemata
mental structures people use to organize and interpret experience
predictive generalizations about people and situations
define expected/appropriate sequences of action in certain settings
a knowledge structure that defines most representative example of a category
self-serving bias
to attribute our positive actions and successes to stable, global, internal influences that we control and to attribute negative actions and failures to unstable, specific, external influences beyond our control
positive visualization
a technique used to enhance success in a variety of situations by teaching people to visualize themselves being effective and successful
the ability to feel with another person. to feel what he/she/they feel in a situation
culture influences and individualism
the beliefs, values, understandings, practices, and ways of interpreting experience that are shared by a group of people
language is arbitrary. verbal symbols are not intrinsically connected to what they represent
random or not necessary. symbols are this because there is no need for any particular symbol to stand for a particular referent
language is abstract
words are not the phenomena to which they refer. stands for phenomena (ideas, people, events, objects) but they are not things they represent
institutional facts
meanings people assign to brute facts that are based on human interpretation
brute facts
objective, concrete phenomena
regulative communication rule
shared understandings of what communication means and what behaviors are appropriate in various situations
constitute rule
communication rules that specify how certain communicative acts are to be counted
defining the beginning and ending of interaction or interaction episodes. its subjective and not always agreed on by those in the interaction
responding to a person as if one aspect of that person were the total of who the person is
loaded language
an extreme form of evaluative language that relies on words that strongly slant perceptions and thus meanings
nonverbal communication
All forms of communication other than words themselves; includes inflection and other vocal qualities as well as several other behaviors such as shrugs, blushing, and eye movements.
percentage of total communication
65 to 95 percent of total meaning of communication
nonverbal behavior
repeating verbal messages, highlight verbal communication, compliment or add to words and contradict verbal messages
five principles of nonverbal communication
1. nonverbal communication is continuous 2. multi channeled 3. conscious / intentional + unconscious / unintentional 4. ambigious 5. can occur face to face + through mediated platforms
we use eye contact, inflections, facial expressions, and body posture to show interest in others
regulates interaction
nonverbal communication regulates interaction. westerners invite specific people to speak by looking at them, yet eye contact is used less to regulate interaction in a number of cultures. although we're usually unaware of how nonverbal actions regulate interaction, we rely on them to know when to speak and when to remain silent
indicator of whether we feel positive or negative (ex: smiles or frowns)
power and its expressions
nonverbal behaviors to assert dominance and to negotiate status. (ex: men use more space, greater volume, and forceful gestures to assert their ideas)
face and body motion