[PT11] Organ Systems

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164 Terms
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the first line of defense for the immune system. It waterproofs the body and is the major receptor for the sense of touch
cutane/o, dermat/o, derm/o
related combining forms of skin
sebaceous glands
secretes sebum (oil) to lubricate the skin and discourage the growth of bacteria on the skin
related combining forms of SEBACEOUS GLANDS
sweat glands
secret sweat to regulate body temperature and water content, and these glands excrete some metabolic waste
related combining forms of SWEAT GLANDS
aids in controlling the loss of body heat
pil/i. pil/o
related combining forms of hair
protect the dorsal surface of the last bone of each finger and toe
onych/o, ungu/o
related combining forms of nails
largest organ in the body in surface area and weight
2 square meters
coverage of the skin
4.5-5kg (16% of total body weight)
weight of the skin
0.5mm to 4mm
thickness of the skin
word parts of hairy/rough
word parts of horny, hard
word parts of fat, lipid
word parts of black, dark
word parts of fungus
word parts of fingernail or toenail
rash or hives
the outermost layer of the skin made up of several specialized epithelial tissues dependent on lower layers for nourishment
a fibrous, water-repellent protein
soft keratin
a primary component of the epidermis
hard keratin
found in the hair and nails
special cells that are also found in the basal cell layer, they produce and contain a dark brown pigment known as melanin
is the pigment that determines the color of the skin, which depends upon the type and amount of this pigment that is present
produces spots of color such as freckles and age spots; has the important function of protecting the skin from harmful ultraviolet rays
the thick layer of living tissue directly below the epidermis
what is the dermis also known as?
connective tissue blood lymph vessels nerve fibers hair follicles sebaceous glands sweat glands sensory nerve endings
what does the dermis contain?
decubitus ulcer (bedsore)
injuries to skin and underlying tissue resulting from prolonged pressure on the skin areas with little fat and muscle over bony prominences are common sites
subcutaneous layer
layer located below the dermis that contains loose connective tissues, adipose tissues, and major blood vessels that supply the skin
pigments responsible for pale yellow to tan and black colors
pigment with melanin that makes skin appear translucent
pigment that's responsible for pink to red color
- due to the amount of melanin produced by melanocytes; number of melanocytes remains the same in all people - distribution and size of pigment granules
why are there differences in skin color?
accumulation of melanin in patches
liver (age) spots
flat skin patches from light brown to black
inherited inability of a person to produce melanin in hair, eyes, and skin
- environment (sunlight) - amount of oxygen -physiological factors - biochemical factors (newborn-jaundice)
factors that influence skin color
- poor blood oxygenation - oxygen-depleted hemoglobin (deep, purplish blue)
what can bluish cyanotic skin and/or nail beds indicate?
- build up of bilirubin in the blood - liver disease
what can yellow to the skin and whites of the eyes indicate?
- capillary engorgement with blood in the dermis due to skin injury, heat exposure, infection, inflammation, or allergic reaction
what can skin redness indicate?
- hair - nails - sweat glands
accessory structures of the skin
- palms - palmar surfaces of the digits - soles - lips - nipples - parts of the external genitalia
hair is not present in these surfaces
arrector pili muscle
smooth muscle that connects each hair follicle to the papillary layer of the dermis
arrector pili muscle
contracts pulling the slanted hair to upright and dimpling the skin surface with "goosebumps"
arrector pili muscle
exerts pressure to sebaceous glands resulting to release of sebum
- thermoregulation - protection - cutaneous sensation - excretion and absorption - vitamin D synthesis
functions of the skin
- liberating sweat at skin surface - adjusting blood flow in the dermis
two methods of thermoregulation in the skin
resist invasion from microbes
oily sebum
protects skin and hairs from drying and kills surface bacteria
protects skin from UVR damaging effects
- touch - pressure - vibration - tickling - thermal
tactile sensations
how much water evaporates from humans daily?
calcitriol (most active form of vitamin D)
produced when UVR activates the vitamin D precursor molecule
helps absorption of calcium in foods from the GIT into the blood
act as the framework for the body, protect the internal organs, and store the mineral calcium
oss/o, oss/i, oste/o, ost/o
related combining forms of bones
red bone marrow
located within the spongy bone, is a hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes
yellow bone barrow
functions as a fat storage area composed chiefly of fat cells and is located in the medullary cavity of long bones
myel/o (also means spinal cord)
related combining forms of bone marrow
creates a smooth surface for motion within the joints and protects the ends of the bones
related combining forms of cartilage
work with muscles to make a variety of motions possible
related combining forms of joints
connect one bone to another
related combining forms of ligament
synovial membrane
forms the lining of synovial joints and secretes synovial fluid
synovi/o, synov/o
related combining forms of synovial membrane/fluid
synovial fluid
lubricant that makes smooth joint movements possible
cushions areas subject to friction during movement
related combining forms of bursa
where is calcium stored?
spongy bone
where is red bone marrow located?
joints work in conjunction with muscles, ligaments, and tendons, making possible the wide variety of body movements
what do joints work in conjunction with?
word part meaning crooked, bent, stiff
word part meaning bind, tie together
word part meaning bent, hump
word part meaning vertebrae, vertebral column, backbone
word part meaning singular noun ending
word part meaning curve, swayback, bent
word part meaning loosening or setting free
word part meaning spinal cord or bone marrow
pertaining to the formation of blood cells can also be spelled as hematopoietic
smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones
more elastic than bone which also makes up the flexible parts of the skeleton (e.g. outer ear, tip of nose)
articular cartilage
covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints
curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints such as the knee and temporomandibular joint of the jaw
axial skeleton
consists of the 80 bones of the head and body that are organized into the skull, middle ear, hyoid bone, thyroid, rib cage, and vertebral column
appendicular skeleton
consists of 126 bones that are organized into upper and lower extremities
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types of bones
located at each end of the bone and are covered with articular cartilage and articulate with other bones
known as the shaft of the bone
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tissues of the bone
anything that is attached to a major part of the body
terminal end of a body part such as an arm or leg
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bones of the axial skeleton
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bones of the appendicular skeleton
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skeletal system
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bones of the cranium - lateral view
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bones of the cranium - anterior view
make body movement possible, hold body erect, move body fluids, and produce body heat
cover, support, and separate muscles
attach muscles to bones
muscul/o, my/o, myos/o
related combining forms of muscles
related combining forms of fascia
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
related combining forms of tendons
- hold the body erect and make movement possible - muscle movement generates 85% of heat keeping the body warm - moves food through the digestive system - muscle movements aid the flow of blood - moves fluids through the ducts and tubes associated with other systems
functions of the muscular system
- skeletal muscle - smooth muscle - cardiac muscle
types of muscle tissue
skeletal muscle
are attached to the bones of the skeleton and make body motions possible
smooth muscle
are located in the walls of internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and ducts leading from glands; they move and control the flow of fluids through these structures
cardiac muscle
form the muscular walls of the heart
a layer of connective tissue that separates and individual skeletal muscle from adjacent layers
a narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to a bone
bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone
muscle innervation
the stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve
motor nerves
enables the brain to stimulate a muscle to contract; muscles relax when stimulation stops
movable end of skeletal muscle
immovable end of skeletal muscle; some muscles have more than one of these
prime mover (agonist)
responsible for most of the movement
aid prime movers
resist the action of a prime mover
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muscles involved in ulnar and radial deviation
muscles of facial expression
lie beneath the skin of the face and scalp and are used to communicate feelings
muscles of mastication
attached to the mandible and are used in chewing
muscles that move the head
muscles in the neck and upper back
muscles that move the pectoral girdle
connect the scapula to nearby bones and closely associate with muscles that move the arm
muscles that move the arm
connect the humerus to various regions of the pectoral girdle, ribs, and vertebral column
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muscular system
muscles that move the FA
connect the radius and ulna to the humerus or pectoral girdle
muscles that move the hand
arise from the distal end of the humerus and from the radius and ulna
muscles of the abdominal wall
connect the ribcage and vertebral column to the pelvic girdle
muscles of the pelvic outlet
muscles that form the floor of the pelvic cavity and fill the space within the pubic arch
muscles that move the thigh
attach to the femur and some part of the pelvic girdle
muscles that move the leg
connect the tibia or fibula to the femur or pelvic girdle
muscles that move the foot
muscles that attach the femur, tibia, and fibula to bones of the foot
inflammation of the fascia
fibromyalgia syndrome
is a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue; diffuse or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain
is an inflammation of the sheath surrounding a tendon
is an inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint
is a band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally
frozen shoulder
adhesions forming in the capsule of connective tissue in the shoulder, tightening around the shoulder joint
atrophy of muscle
caused by pathology or by disuse of the muscle over a long period of time
is tenderness or pain in the muscles
is the protrusion of a part of a structure through the tissues normally containing it
is the degeneration of muscle tissue
means deterioration or breaking down
is a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body
the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues
spasm, charley horse
a sudden, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles. Also known as a _________ especially when occurring in the leg
a painful localized muscle spasm often named for its cause
overuse injuries
when minor tissue injuries have not been given time to heal; caused by spending hours at the computer keyboard or by lengthy sports training sessions
overuse tendinitis/tendinosis
an inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of a joint
myofascial pain syndrome
is a chronic pain disorder that affects muscles and fascia throughout the body
impingement syndrome
occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint
plantar fasciitis
is an inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot; causes foot or heel pain when walking or running
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skin during the aging process