History Quiz 2

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114 Terms
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Roman Bishop (Leo I) claims supremacy over other bishops
Restoration of Icons in the Eastern Church
“Great Schism” (East-West) begins (ends 1965)
Constantinople attacked as part of the Fourth Crusade
Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks
in the RCC, the definitive sentence by which the pope declares a particular dead person to have already entered into heavenly glory and ordains for the new "saint" (a public cult throughout the Church)
Ottoman Empire
Muslim empire of the Turks, established in Northern Asia Minor by Osman 1
Ottoman Empire ultimately...
captured Constantinople
a Turkish dynasty that ruled parts of Asia Minor
Byzantium -- Constantinople
presently known as Istanbul, Turkey
Advantage of Constantinople's site
strategically located for commercial and political influence
Byzantium history summarized by...
periods: expansion, peril, recovery, disintegration
reign of Justinian
the iconoclastic controversy
religious images used to foster worship -- flat pictures, mosaics
people who tried to destroy ALL icons
Eastern Orthodoxy
the veneration of icons was allowed and they remain part of...
Byzantium experienced a "Golden Age"
the Byzantium empire began to fall apart
Byzantium Empire was lost at:
Manzikert to Muslim Seljuk Turks
Byzantium's money economy
as opposed to a barter economy
Byzantium's advanced military science
"Greek fire" -- worked like napalm (fire bomb or flame thrower)
Byzantine empire government
a Centralized administration
church-state link that enhanced unity and stability
Three main branches of Christianity:
eastern orthodox, RCC, Protestantism
Orthodox (Greek/Eastern)
internal witness of the Holy Spirit keeps the truth
Roman Catholic Church (RCC)
asserts spiritual authority in tradition, the Pope, and the Scriptures
asserts that spiritual authority rests in the inerrant Word of God (sola scriptura)
Orthodox theology emphasizes...
sanctification -- justification is virtually absent
barbarian invasions...
brought an upsurge in the Papacy's rise/position/authority
Pope's claim to supreme authority...
also based on these factors that slowly coalesced: Petrine Theory and Apostolic succession
Petrine Theory
the RCC insists that Christ gave to Peter a special rank as the 1st Bishop of Rome & leader of the apostles – Peter was the first pope & all subsequent popes inherited his authority
Apostolic Succession
refers to bishops tracing a direct line of authority through the Apostles back to Christ
Terms for the Pope
Papacy (office) -- Holy See -- Pontiff (used interchangeably)
Peter serving as a Bishop of Rome:
a LEGEND, the NT has no mention of this
Peter to Francis
266 Popes
"Ex-cathedra" (from the chair)
When the pope speaks, it is viewed by the RCC as possessing divine authority equal to that of God in scripture --infallible
the Medieval World
commonly termed the "Middle Ages"
RCC functioned as...
"social cement" of the Middle Ages
RCC performed...
record-keeping, judicial, and welfare functions
evangelized Ireland early in the 5th century -- facts confused by legend
King of the Franks
fell under the rule of the Arian Visigoths
King Recared
officially proclaimed the conversion of the people to Catholicism
Gregory I or "Gregory the Great"
Pope that acted as a ruler of Rome
Gregory I promoted:
clerical celibacy
Gregory I affirmed:
the existence of a place of purification and thus gave impetus to the development of the doctrine of purgatory
“a place or state in which are detained the souls of those who die in grace, in friendship with God, but with the blemish of venial sin or with temporal debt for sin unpaid. Here the soul is purged, cleansed, readied for eternal union with God in Heaven.”
Suffering in purgatory:
twofold: physical pain + separation from God
an efficacious sign of grace
The seven sacraments:
Baptism, Holy Eucharist, Penance/Confession, Confirmation, Matrimony, Holy Orders, Extreme Unction
washes away the stains of Adam's original sin -- unites person with RCC
Holy Eucharist
Heart of the Mass worship service
at the priests words, the elements actually become the body and blood of Christ
the priest privately listens to a person confessing sins which are then forgiven -- the forgiven sinner is assigned some prayers to say or works to be done as penance
faith publicly affirmed, Holy Spirit received
Holy Orders
"ordination" -- priests are sanctioned for their works by a bishop
Extreme Unction
"Last Rites" given by a priest to someone near death for forgiveness of sins
in the RCC, some may have become canonized...
may be defined as a religious object associated with a religious leader, or the body part of such
Life of Muhammad
The Hegira (Hijra) – year 1 of the Islamic calendar
Beginning of the division leading to Sunni & Shiah Muslim sects
How many Muslims are there worldwide?
roughly 1 billion (4x the population of the US)
Isalm means...
The Birth of Islam
geographically located in the Arabian Peninsula
Islam is NOT:
a united, monolithic entity
10/40 window
where large Muslim communities are
since the death of Muhammad...
the traditions of the Hadith, the Sunnah, & the Shariah have emerged to guide the community
report(s) of the words & deeds of Muhammad and other early Muslims
the body of authentic hadith reports...
considered to embody the Sunnah (custom/example) of the Prophet Muhammad
Sunnah (Sunna)
established custom typically based on Muhammad's example
ideal Islamic law
Islam's split began with:
disagreement over Muhammad’s successor – Sunnis upheld the principle that the caliph (leader) owed his position to the consent of the Islamic community – Shiites believed only Muhammad’s descendants/kinsmen could lead
Majority part of Islam
Shiah (Shiites)
identified with Muhammad’s cousin/son-in-law Ali (4th Caliph) – saw Ali as possessing a spiritual endowment directly from Muhammad
Shrine in Mecca
Muhammad was involved in:
caravan trade
Muhammad obtains:
enough capital to become independently wealthy
According to Islamic tradition...
Muhammad had a vision of the Angel Gabriel, during which he hears a voice telling him he is the “Messenger of God”
Muhammad travels:
the journey known as the Hegira (or Hijra). This becomes the starting year for the Muslim calendar
March on Mecca:
Muhammad destroys the pagan idols in the Kabba and rededicates the shrine to Islam
Abu Bakr
the first caliph---essentially launches wars that will dramatically expand the Islamic world
Caliph (successor)
leader of the Muslim community
Umayyad (Omayyad) Muslim dynasty
Ali (4th Caliph) is challenged by the Syrian governor Muawiya – Ali was eventually killed, allowing his rival to seize power. The caliphate (territory controlled by the caliph) remained in the hands of Muawiya’s family & became known as the Umayyads
Umayyad dynasty moved the capital...
from Medina to Damascus
Abbasid Muslim Dynasty
moved the capital form Damascus to Baghdad
Mongols invaded Muslim lands
(some) Mongols converted to Islam
The Quran
"recite" -- the reciting of the revelations to Muhammad
Quran viewed as...
final revelation from God given by the Angel Gabriel to Muhammad revealed will of God which corrects/supersedes other revelations
Quran was codified...
after Muhammad's death
"struggle": it encompasses two types (or senses) – a greater and a lesser:
individual battle against sin
a holy war
Other Muslim beliefs:
males can marry up to 4 wives (there will be variances given the social/legal climate)
Muslim view of Jesus Christ:
he did not die on the cross--- he was protected from crucifixion and a substitute took his place
The Middle Ages or Medieval Period (broken Early, High, Late)
Charles Martel defeats Muslim forces at Tours (end of N. expansion)
Charlemagne crowned emperor by the pope (Christmas Day)
The era of the Crusades
Fourth Lateran Council affirms Transubstantiation
Church and state fused together
became the “College of Cardinals” – created to select a pope
the right of an eldest son to succeed to the estate of his father at the exclusion of all his siblings
the buying & selling of spiritual or Church benefits
Germanic peoples with a kingdom located in modern France and Germany
Charles Martel
"The Hammer" -- served as mayor of the palace
where Charles Martel defeated an Islamic army
Pepin the Great
gave the Pope territory in central Italy, later known as the "Papal States"
Charlemagne's Empire
establishes his rule over much of the former Roman Empire in Europe
Missi Dominici
"traveling inspectors" -- enlisted by Charlemagne
Rome, Christmas Day -- during Mass, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne
Charlemagne took the notion of church-state cooperation by attaching it to Europe. bequeathed this down generations
Carolingian Renaissance
Charlemagne's palace school -- nucleus of an intellectual/cultural revival