Applied Neuro Exam 1

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Differentiate motor learning and motor control
motor learning - acquisition/modification of movement motor control - ability to direct movement
Define skill
ability to consistently achieve goals under a wide variety of conditions
Differentiate a discrete, serial, and continuous movement?
discrete - beginning and end serial - discrete linked together (order matters) continuous - no distinct beginning and end (ex: gait)
Differentiate between closed skill versus and open skill
closed - predictable, not varied, can plan in advance, no change in environment open - unpredictable, adapt movements in response to environment
What are some of the primary effector systems to the movement system?
musculoskeletal, nervous
What are some support systems to the movement system? (3)
cardiopulmonary, metabolic, integumentary
Movement emerges from what three things?
the individual, task, and environment
New solutions in specific tasks given the new constraints imposed on the individual (associated with the neural pathology)
recovery of function
What is the difference between performance and learning?
performance is a temporary change seen during a practice session learning - result from the experience of practice that is more permanent, tested outside of practice
What is the cognitive, associative, and autonomous phases of motor learning?
cognitive - understanding what to do associative - understanding how to do autonomous - doing it well
Motor program theory where we have a set of rules for spatial-temporal patterns for a type of movement (ex: waving)
Schmidt's Schema Theory
What is explicit versus implicit motor learning? What types of memory does each encompass
explicit = declarative memory, verbal knowledge of movement implicit = procedural memory, improvement in physical performance of the movement
Which type of memory is understanding how to do something and requires effortful process?
What type of memory is how to do something and requires doesn't require conscious attention
Knowing the phases of the gait cycle versus knowing how to walk are what types of memories?
gait cycle phases - declarative knowing how to walk - procedural
what are the three critical brain areas for procedural memory?
cerebellum, basal ganglia, sensorimotor cortex
What is the role of the cerebellum?
use sensory feedback to adjust motor output for procedural learning
Which part of the brain is responsible for changing movement or direction? (voluntary movement initiation)
basal ganglia
What is the responsibility of the basal ganglia?
coordinates movement response selection
Unilateral basal ganglia stroke had what effect on procedural learning? What about ability to benefit from declarative instructions?
slowed procedural learning, reduced ability to learn from declarative instructions
What can we use to drive motor learning when explicit learning systems are damaged?
sensorimotor cortex
Which system is active when explicit knowledge is unavailable and learning is implicit or internally driven?
sensorimotor cortex
What four areas of the brain drive declarative learning?
hippocampus, amygdala, medial temporal cortex, and prefrontal/premotor cortices
What is role of hippocampus and medial temporal cortex?
help form declarative memory
Which system allows declarative learning to be held in working memory and used to guide motor performance?
prefrontal cortex
Damage to prefrontal and premotor cortex has what impact?
decreased ability to integrate declarative knowledge into movement
Which system responsible for sequencing and timing via external cues and explicit instructions
premotor cortex
Damage to hippocampus and medial temporal cortex has what effect?
decrease ability to form declarative knowledge, have ability for procedural learning
As skill of task or movement increases -- ___ areas of the brain are activated
What is the impact of declarative instructions on motor learning?
can harm motor learning
The process of neuromodifiability (parallels learning)
How does neuroplasticity occur at the network level and intercellular level?
network - changes in pattern of neural activation intercellular - changes between neurons and synapses
What is the 2 step mechanism underlying both LTP and LTD?
synaptic plasticity (modifying strength of synapse) and anatomical plasticity (modifying circuits through dendritic sprouting)
Describe use it or lose it
failure to do specific functions can lead to a loss of function
Describe use it and improve it
training of specific function leads to enhance function
What is specificity principle?
nature of the training experiences dictates the nature of plasticity
What is the repetition matters principle?
induction of plasticity requires sufficient repetition
What is intensity matters principle?
plasticity requires sufficient training intensity
What is the time matters principle?
different forms of plasticity occur at different times during training (neurons that fire synchronously will adopt a stronger connection)
What is the salience matters principle
training must be salient/important to induce plasticity
What is the one principle of neuroplasticity that we cannot change?
Age - training induced plasticity occurs more readily in the younger brain
What is transference?
Plasticity in response to one training experience can enhance the acquisition of similar behaviors
What is interference?
plasticity in experience can degrade acquisition of behavior
What is restorative neuroplasticity? How does this occur?
resolution of a temporary change in function - recovery of injured neural tissue or nearby neural tissue take over identical function
T/F: restorative neuroplasticity has a significant change in cortical organization
false - no significant change
What is compensatory neuroplasticity?
completely different neural circuits enable recovery (change in cortical representation)
What is force-used paradigms?
practicing the way you want to perform correctly
What is the difference between functional enabling and functional disabling?
enabling: changes associated with force-used paradigms to improve motor function disabling: changes in representation associated with disuse or bad practice
Phantom limb sensation is an example of what kind of neuroplasticiy?
compensatory - functional disabling (maladaptive)
What is cortical re-organization?
re-organization of map due to change in behavioral input to cortex
What are three methods used to measure neuroplasticity via cortical mapping?
intracranial cortical recording, transcranial magnetic stimulation, functional imaging (fMRI)
What kind of practice is essential in minimizing disuse and maladaptive neuroplasaticity?
early active task-specific practice
Excessive vigorous rehab of motor recovery too soon after injury may contribute to ______
This theory considers a social-cognitive-affective-motor nature of "motor" behavior
optimal theory
What are the three components of OPTIMAL theory? Which are motivational versus attention factors?
motivational - enhanced expectancies, autonomy attention - external focus of attention
In what manner should positive feedback be given?
provide when performed well, ignore unsuccessful performances
Enhanced expectations are _______
not motivationally neutral
How could we clinically enhance expectations for a patient?
set up practice conditions that enhance learners' performance expectancies
What is social-comparative feedback?
provide learner with normative information to reduce concern and increase motivation to learn
In what way could you perform self-modeling feedback?
edited video feedback to show learners' best performance
What is the idea of perceived task difficulty?
setting criteria to indicate good performance while keeping the criteria reachable
What is our goal as clinicians when discussing the concept of "conceptions of ability"
To change someones view of their abilities to be amenable to change with practice (not a fixed capacity)
A concept that enhances motivation/performance effectiveness via rewards/punishments (rarely used clinically)
extrinsic rewards
Positive affect is expected to accompany what situations?
They accompany experiences that produce enhanced performance expectancies/similar outcomes
What is the idea of autonomy?
Allowing the individual to exercise control over the environment
What are some words you could use to employ autonomy supportive language?
saying may instead of must
What way could be a method to utilize learner autonomy if you have a patient with an assistive device learning to ambulate?
let the patient choose when they want to use that device
Explain the idea of incidental choices?
Allowing learners to chose the extent of the spacing of practice trials
Knowledge of performance directs someone to internal focus or external focus
internal focus
What is external focus of attention?
instructions directing attention away from one's body parts or self and to the intended movement effect
What is the difference between the movement effectiveness and movement efficiency?
effectiveness - achieving the goal of the movement efficiency - same movement with less energy expenditure
What is the impact of an external focus of attention on automaticity?
All sensory information that is available as the result of a movement that a person has produced
Feedback that comes to the individual through various sensory systems as the result of the production of movement/posture
Intrinsic feedback
What body systems are involved in forward feedback?
vision, seeing before a movement
What is the difference between knowledge of results and knowledge of performance augmented feedback? (extrinsic)
KR - feedback about outcome of movement (gait speed) KP - feedback about characteristics of movement (bending knee more during gait)
What are some negative impacts of extrinsic feedback?
reduces self error detection, increases dpendency
KR or KP: Tighten your abs more
KR or KP: you completed 5 reps in 8 seconds
What is concurrent versus immediate augmented feedback?
concurrent - during task performance immediate - right after performance
Is concurrent or delayed feedback more effective for motor learning?
What is the timing for delayed augmented feedback?
wait 2-5 seconds after movement, give feedback, ensure 2-5 more seconds after feedback before performing movement
Delayed feedback about trials after a series of trials
Summary feedback
What is the relationship between complexity of a task and the number of trials summarized before feedback?
simpler tasks, more trials before summarized feedback. The more complex a task gets, the less trials before summarized feedback
As motor learning increases, how does frequency of feedback change?
frequency of feedback is less
How does the size of bandwidth change the frequency of augmented feedback?
larger bandwidth then less frequency of feedback
in bandwidth feedback, at what times is feedback given?
when performance falls outside of band of acceptable performance
what type of feedback schedule maximizes motor learning?
summary feedback and bandwidth
How does practice time to rest time compare in massed/blocked versus distributed practice?
massed (blocked) practice - more practice time than rest time distributed - more rest than practice
How does motor learning compare from massed vs. distributed practice
they are about the same
Rank the practice styles from the most contextual interference to the least contextual interference
random > serial > blocked
How is performance and motor learning affected in random order of practice when compared to other orders?
decreased performance, but best motor learning
systematic and repetitive practice of movements or actions in the context of performing a functional task
task specific training
Part practice is most appropriate for what kind of movements?
serial movements
For optimal learning, how should part practice be used with whole practice?
combined with
Whole practice is most appropriate for what kind of motor tasks?
all of them (discrete, serial, random)
What two things must mental practice or imagery be?
vivid and detailed
What is the effect of priming on BDNF activity?
increases (increases long term potentiation)
Variability in practice enhances _______ problem-solving to enhance motor learning?
What are the types of physical assistance from order of lowest degree of skill acquisition to highest?
guidance, assistance as needed, unassisted, error augmentation
manual guidance may be used in what part of the practice session?
Manual guidance has what effect on transfer of learning?
Trying to make something more difficult in order to increase motor learning (accentuating the negative/increasing errors)
error augmentation
When are some times in which error augmentation stage of physical assistance would not be appropriate? (4)
early in learning, guidance is needed, cognitive impairments, late stages of degenerative diseases
A harness, gait belt, and parallel bars are examples of what stage of physical assistance?
assistance as needed or unassisted
What does the power law of practice say about what happens early in practice versus later on in practice?
early - performance improves rapidly late - performance improves slowly
How is a transfer test different from a retention test?
transfer test is a similar but different task or the same task practiced in a different environment
What is a retention test?
same task in the same environment
What is different about the timing between retention and a transfer test?
retention requires period of practice/rest, transfer does not
What is positive vs. negative transfer?
positive - performed better on new task negative - performed worse
T/F: The transfer test is a stronger test for motor learning than retention
What is the idea of savings?
time saved to relearn a task vs the time needed with initial learning
What is the initial mechanism of long term potentiation?
conversion of silent synapses into active synapses
In a silent synapse, where are the AMPA receptors located?
cytoplasm, *not the cell membrane*
Describe the synaptic plasticity process of long-term potentiation
NMDA receptors bind to glutamate --> calcium rushes into post-synaptic membrane --> AMPA receptors bind to cell membrane from the cytoplasm
What is a strong regulator in gene activity that occurs in anatomic plasticity in long-term potentiation?
Describe the anatomic plasticity process in long term potentiation?
continued stimulation forms new post-synaptic dendritic spines this structural change in the neuron is related to genetic alterations
Evidence suggests what may enhance BDNF expression and motor learning?
aerobic exercise
What is role of brain derived neuropathic factor (BDNF)?
enhances synaptic efficacy in LTP
Long term depression reflects what learning principle?
use it or lose it
The anatomic plasticity portion of long term potentiation reflects what principles of learning?
Repetition matters, use it and improve it, time matters
The synaptic plasticity portion of long term potentiation reflects what learning principles?
intensity and time matters
Describe long term depression process?
lack of practice -- AMPA receptors move back into cytoplasm -- glutamate less likely to depolarize synapse