Unit 2 22-23

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The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
natural features of the earth's surface
Water Bodies
inland areas of water (rivers, lakes, reservoirs etc)
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.
Arithmetic Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Carrying Capacity
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support.
Population Pyramid
A bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex.
the characteristics of a population with respect to age, race, and gender.
Birth Rate
the number of live births per thousand of population per year.
Death Rates
the number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people in a population.
Life Expectancy
The average number of years a newborn can expect to live.
Dependency Ratio
The number of people under age 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Rate of Natural Increase (RNI)
The difference in births and deaths in a population, usually expressed as a percentage; does not take into account migration into or out of an area.
Population Doubling Time
The number of years required for a population to double in size.
the incidence of childbearing in a country's population
Demographic Transition Model
a model of how the size of a population changes as a country develops its economy
Stage 1 DTM
Low Growth, very high CBR, High CBR, Low NIR
Stage 2 DTM
High CBR, Lowering CDR, Increasing NIR, exploding population
Stage 3 DTM
Decreasing CBR, Low CDR, Decreasing NIR, population growth
Stage 4 DTM
Low CBR, Low CDR, Low NIR, stable (but large) population
Stage 5 DTM
Low CBR, Increasing CDR, Negative NIR, decreasing population
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Epidimiological Transition Model
A model that describes the major causes of death between the different stages of development. It goes from famine and natural plagues and diseases to man made afflictions such as smoking and heart attacks due to diet and lack of exercise.
ETM Stage 1 (Pestilence and Famine)
Pestilence, famine, and human conflict cause high CDR (Ex. Black Plague)
ETM Stage 2 (Receding Pandemics)
Receding pandemics with improved sanitation and nutrition, rapidly declining CDR
ETM Stage 3 & 4 (Degenerative Diseases)
Elderly diseases, CBR down, Population stable; the introduction of healthcare & antibiotics led to an increased life expectancy—obesity-related and degenerative disease.
ETM Stage 5 (Reemerging Diseases)
a proposed stage of reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases and some become resistant to antibiotics; CDR increases
Thomas Malthus
Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.
Malthusian Theory
The theory that population grows faster than food supply
group who built on Malthus' theory and suggested that people wouldn't just starve for lack of food, but would have wars about food and other scarce resources
Esther Boserup
Geographer who believed that our farming technology will always improve in order to be able to feed the growing population of the planet.
a government policy that encourages or forces childbearing, and outlaws or limits access to contraception
Policies that discourage people from having children (China's One Child Policy)
Intentionally preventing pregnancy from occurring
movement of people from one place to another
International Migration
Permanent movement from one country to another.
Interregional Migration
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
Intraregional Migration
movement within a region
Push Factors
Incentives for potential migrants to leave a place, such as a harsh climate, economic recession, or political turmoil.
Pull Factors
Factors that induce people to move to a new location.
Forced Migration
Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.
Voluntary Migration
Permanent movement undertaken by choice.
A system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by other people.
A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster
Internally Displaced Person (IDP)
someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders
Asylum Seeker
a migrant hoping to be declared a refugee in a foreign country
Transnational Migration
a process of movement and settlement across international borders in which individuals maintain or build multiple networks of connection to their country of origin while at the same time settling in a new country
A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures.
Circular Migration
the temporary and usually repetitive movement of a migrant worker between home and host areas, typically for the purpose of employment
Internal Migration
permanent movement within the same country
Step Migration
Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
Chain Migration
The migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends or family members to an existing community.
Guest Workers
legal immigrant who has work visa, usually short term
Rural to Urban Migration
the movement of people from the countryside to the city
Ernst Ravenstein
Created the laws of migration. Include:1. Most migrations are over a short distance. 2. Migration occurs in a series of steps. 3. Long-distance migration tends to go to urban areas. 4. Migration flows create counter flows. 5. Rural residents are more likely to move than an urban residence. 6. Women migrate more often inside their country (shorter distances) and men migrate outside of the country (longer distances). -Not true today 7. Most migrants are young adult males. 8. Migration increases with economic development. 9. Migration is mostly due to economic causes.