loss of civic virtue, too much diversity(most emperors born outside rome) and too christian(pessimistic and reliant on mercanaries
First Christian emperor of Rome
what did constantine do
he made the edict of milan, moved the capital, oversaw the council of nicea
edict of milan
outlawed persecution of christians
where did the roman capital move?
rome to byzantium(constantinople)now istanbul
jesus of nazareth
spoke the gospels, descendant of abraham and david
wrote the koran and started islam
Was Muhammad successful at first trying to convert the people of Mecca?
no, only had 14 followers after 3 years
jesus named him peter
the rock upon jesus would build his church
what did peter believe before the conference of jerusalem
That christianity was a continuation of judaism
Why wasn't peters idea of christianity successful?
Men didn't want to be circumsized.
saul of tarsus was renamed-
road to damascus
paul's conversion to christianity
what was paul's idea of christianity?
It was not a continuation of judaism, rather something new. This was the more successful school of thought that ultimately won at the conference of jerusalem.
2nd century church leader whose views on the outpouring of the Holy Spirit through trances leading to prophetic utterances about the return of Christ and the establishment of a New Jerusalem led to a heretical ascetic set that was condemned by the church. two girls who spoke in tongues(priscilla and maxima)
bishop of alexandria, thought the father came before the sun
Council of nicea
makes the trinity Orthodox
St. Augustine of hippo
Author of confessions
City of god by St. Augustine of Hippo
dealt with Donitism, Trinity ,Evil ,Just War, Original sin, and Free will (Gods will=Good, Free will=Evil)
cousin and son in law of muhammad, last of the 4 rightly guided caliphs.
the 12 Imams, ali is the first. The 12th is still in occultation and will return when islam has conquered the world.
Non-Muslim under Islamic rule; protected and restricted
A holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal/holy war
head tax/Poll tax that non-Muslims had to pay when living within a Muslim empire
The most sacred temple of Islam, located at Mecca
the method of interpreting seemingly contradictory material within or between the Qur'an and the Sunnah
first three generations of Muslims/muhammad and his followers
Body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life
A chapter of the Qur'an(koran, in mr hobbs writing)
The collective community of Islamic peoples, which is thought to transcend ethnic and political boundaries.
A supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
Shi'ite sect that believes there are 12 Imams, and that the final one, the Mahdi, will come back
in agreement with established or generally accepted beliefs or ways of doing things
an opinion different from accepted belief; the denial of an idea that is generally held sacred
shira/does hobbs mean sharia??
20% of the muslim community
A pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims