Chapter 11 Cellular Communication

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41 Terms
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signaling cell acts on nearby target cells by secreting molecules of local regulator
Local regulator
chemical signals that influence cells in vicinity
signal to receptor in own body
specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones into blood stream to act on target cells at distant body site
a signaling molecule that is released across the synapse to a receptor
nerve cells releases neurotransmitters molecules into synapse
junction between 2 neurons
signaling cells act on target cell that is in physical contact with each other (neighboring cells)
3 steps of cellular communication
reception, transduction, and response
target cell's detection of a signaling cell molecule coming from outside the molecule
converts signal to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response
transduced signal triggers specific cellular response
smaller molecule that binds with a larger molecule
Receptor tyrosine kinase
membrane receptors that attach phosphates to tyrosine dimer and can trigger multiple signal transduction pathways at once
G protein-coupled receptors
cell surface transmembrane receptors that work with the help of a G protein to transport signals across the membrane
G protein
bind GTP or GDP to GPCR to activate or inactivate receptor
Ligand-gated ion channel
signal molecule opens up gate letting ions transport into the cell
high concentration in ER and is released by IP3
carries signal initiated by epinephrine from plasma membrane of liver or muscle cell into cell's interior to initiate the required action
Adenyl cyclase
converts ATP to cAMP in response to extracellular signal which then cAMP broadcasts signal to the whole interior of the cell
converts cAMP to AMP which stops the extracellular signal
Mating factors
a and alpha secrete specific factor that only binds to receptor on other's cell
Yeast signal transduction pathways
cell finds and contacts partner by detecting direction of pheromone source and polarizing growth towards it
Intracellular receptors
found in cytoplasm or nucleus of target cells
What can pass through the membrane easily through diffusion?
small or hydrophobic chemical messengers
Hydrophobic messengers
steroid and thyroid hormones
Hormone-receptor complex
turns on or off particular genes
Signal amplification
enzyme cascades amplify cell's response to signal
water soluble ligand signaling molecules
bind to specific site on receptor proteins that span plasma membrane
lipid soluble ligand signaling molecules
cross the cell membrane and bind with intracellular molecules (slower rate but longer lasting response)
Benefits of transduction multiple step pathway
signal amplification and fine-tuning
different proteins allow cells to detect and respond to different signals and same signal can have different effects in cells leading to multiple pathways
Protein kinases
transfer phosphates from ATP to protein (phosphorylation) which activates molecule
removes phosphate from protein which deactivates molecule
Membrane proteins
GPCR, receptor tyrosine kinase, and ion channel receptors
transfers phosphates from ATP to another molecule
Scaffolding proteins
large relay protein with other relay proteins attached which increases signal transduction efficiency (power strip)
C. elegans model
Ced-9 inhibits Ced-4, with signal Ced-9 is inhibited and Ced-4 is active which activates Ced-3, Ced-3 is the caspase (controls cell suicide)
programmed cell death which cells are chopped up, packaged into vesicles, and are digested by scavenger cells
Apoptosis signal
death signal can be received inside or outside the cell
Phosphorylation cascade
continuous activation of protein kinase until specific protein is reached, which send cellular response (Christmas tree)