Exam 1 Developmental Psych

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child development
the scientific study of patterns of growth, change and stability that occur from conception through adolescence
physical development
examining the ways in which the body's makeup helps determine behavior
cognitive development
examining the ways in which the body's makeup helps determine behavior
social development
the way in which an individual's interactions with others and social relationships grow, change and remain stable over the course of life
personality development
the study of stability and change in the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another, ie personality traits
Topical areas in child development are:
physical, cognitive, social and personality
developmental stages
prenatal, infancy and toddlerhood, preschool, middle childhood, and adolescence
social constructions
a shared notion of reality that is widely accepted by our society/culture
a group of people born around the same time and place, experiencing similar events
history-graded influences
biological and environmental influences associated with a particular historical moment (ex:cohort effect)
age-graded influences
biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals within a specific age group, regardless of. when or where they are raised
non-normative life events
specific, atypical events that occur in a person's life at a time when such events do not happen to most people
continuous change
development is gradual with achievements at one level building onto those at the next
discontinuous change
development occurs in distinct steps or stages, bringing behaviors that are completely different from behaviors at earlier stages
critical period
a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences
the degree to which a developing behavior or physical structure is modifiable
sensitive period
a time which organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment
the process of the predetermined unfolding of genetic information
developmental psychology
the psychology of development throughout the lifespan
developmental science
an interdisciplinary approach of how development works
an orderly, integrated, evidence-based set of statements that describe, predict, and explain developmental changes
psychodynamic theory
behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories and conflicts which a person has little awareness or control over
behaviorism theory
focuses on direct, observable behaviors to drive how we understand development
social learning theory
learning can happen through modeling and social interaction
constructivist theory
as we develop, we are highly influenced by the environment around us (happens through stages)
information processing theory
people actively construct their own knowledge and adapt their behaviors based on new information on a continuous lens
cognitive neuroscience theory
using physiological processes to understand development
ethological/evolutionary theory
there is adaptive values to behavior that influence our development
ecological theory
studies relationships and contextual information from the social and physical environment around us
some contextual factors that can shape development are:
SES, education, cultural values, gender role expectations, societal norms, privilege/oppression, family dynamics, social relationships, religious affiliation, childhood trauma, etc
psychosocial development
changes in our interactions with others, of others; behavior, and of themselves; suggests development happens in eight distinct phases
classical conditioning
occurs when an organism is trained to respond in a particular way to a neutral stimulus
operant conditioning
a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened in association with positive or negative consequences
the process by which a stimulus is provided that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated
the introduction of an unpleasant or painful stimulus or the removal or a desirable stimulus to decrease the probability that a behavior will continue in the future
behavior modification
a formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable stimuli to decrease the probability that a behavior will continue in the future
Social-Cognitive Learning Theory
an approach that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model
The four steps of social cognitive learning are:
1) An observer must pay attention and perceive the model's behaviors 2) The observer must successfully recall the behavior 3) The observer must reproduce behavior 4)The observer must be motivated to learn and repeat that behavior
cognitive theory
a focus on the processes that allow people to know, understand and think about the world
the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current cognitive level
the way in which children respond and adjust to new information
changes in existing ways of thinking in response to encounters with new stimuli or events
Information-Processing Approaches
an approach that seeks to identify the ways in which individuals take in, use and store information
This approach assumes that even complex behaviors such as learning and thinking can be broken down into a series of individual, specific steps.
Information-Processing Approach
Metaphorically, our brain is like a _________ that processes and codes information in specific formats
Neo-Piagetian Theory
Suggests that cognitive development proceeds quickly in certain areas and more slowly in others
cognitive neuroscience approach
an approach that looks at cognitive development through the lens of brain processes, specifically the neurological activity that underlies thinking, problem solving, and other cognitive behavior
Contextual theory
a perspective that considers the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality and social worlds
bioecological approach
suggests that five levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals
everyday, immediate environment
direct and indirect influences in the microsystem/interactions between different environments
broader influences such as societal institutions
the larger cultural influences on an individual
the passage of time, including historical events and changes
Sociocultural theory
emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture
This theory focuses on the concept that there is a reciprocal transaction between a child's environment and the child themselves (ie environment influences child as the child also influences their environment), such as scaffolding
sociocultural theory
evolutionary theory
the theory that seeks to identify behavior is the result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors
This theory focuses on how genetics and environment combined can influence behavior
evolutionary theory
a field that examines the way in which our biology makeup influences our behaviors
behavioral genetics
studies the effects heredity have on behavior
scientific method
the process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and collection of data
The three main steps to this method are:
identifying questions of interest, formulating an explanation, and carrying out research
a prediction stated in a way that permits it to be tested
the process of translating a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed
Correlation does not imply __________
______________ research focuses on finding an association or relationship, while __________ research focuses on discovering causal relationships between various factors
a.) correlational b.) experimental
correlation coefficient
a number that represents that correlation between factors ranges from +1 (perfect positive correlation) and -1 (perfect negative correlation)
A positive correlation means that as one goes higher, the other ______
also increases
A negative correlation means that as one variable increases, the other ________
When there is no relationship the correlation coefficient is ___
naturalistic observation
the observation of a naturally occurring behavior in it's natural environment without any intervention
research with the goal of understanding a culture's values and attitudes through careful, extended examination
qualitative research
used to describe rather than quantify in research; generates hypotheses to test
case studies
extensive, in-depth interviews with particular individual or small groups of individual to draw general conclusions about a broad group of people
survey research
a group of individuals are chosen to represent some larger population is asked questions about attitudes, behavior, or thinking on a given topic
psychophysiological methods
focuses on the relationship between physiological processes and behavior
a process in which an investigator, called an experimenter, devises two different experiences for subjects or participants
the procedure applied by an experimental investigator based on two different experiences devised for subjects or pariticipants
treatment group
the group in an experiment that receives the treatment
control group
the group in an experiment that receives either no treatment or an alternative treatment
independent variable
the variable that researchers manipulate in the experiment
dependent variable
the variable that researchers measure in an experiment and expect to change as a result of the experimental manipulation
random assignment
participants are assigned to different experimental groups or conditions on the basis of chance and change alone
the group of participants selected for an experiment
field study
a research investigation carried out in a naturally occurring setting
laboratory study
research done in a laboratory or controlled setting
theoretical research
designed to test some developmental explanation and expand scientific knowledge
applied research
meant to provide practical solutions to immediate problems
longitudinal research
the study of the behavior of one or more study participants is measured as they age
cross-sectional research
study of people of different ages that are compared at the same point in time
sequential studies
researchers examine a number of different age groups at several points in time
carefully planned and systematic way of answering one or more questions, following certain guidelines that will ensure that the answers are the most objective, valid and reliable that we can find
consistency or repeatability of results
interrater reliability
multiple people get the same results
test-retest reliability
you can get similar results taking the same test or experiment at another point in time
does the research and study what it claims to
internal validity
the specific design of the study; does the individual study assess the results we claim to measure
external validity
the overall use and validity of the study; does it apply to the world outside of that study?
steps to research in applied psychology
1. Find a practical problem 2. Find a research topic 3. Create a research question 4. Finding research answers
cohort-sequential research design
choose two groups of children of different ages to follow for a reduced amount of times
the ________ research design combines that factors and benefits of both longitudinal and cross-section studies
Humans start out as a singular cell, in which the sperm pushes through the ovum creating a ______, eventually fusing to create a zygote
a.) gamete b.) zygote
the sex cells from the mother and father that form a new cell at conception
the new cell formed by the process of fertilization
the basic unites of genetic information
the substance that genes are composed of that determines the nature of every cell in the body and how it will function
rod-shaped poritons of DNA that are organized in 23 pairs
Sex cells in the ova and sperm contain half this amount to combine and create 23 pairs of ______
monozygotic twins
twins who are genetically identical
Sometimes a cluster of cells will separate from the ovum, which creates two genetically identical zygotes, making _________
monozygotic twins
When two separate ova and sperm are both fertilized roughly the same time, this results in ________
dizygotic twins
At fertilization, the ovum always provides an __ chromosome, and the sperm provides either an ___ or __ chromosome. If a chromosome is XX, this is a _____. If it is XY, it is a ____.
a.) X b.) X c.) Y d.) girl e.) boy
dominant trait
the one trait that is expressed when two competing traits are present
recessive trait
a trait within an organism that is present, but is not expressed
the underlying combination of genetic material present (but not outwardly visible) in an organism
an observable trait; the trait that is actually seen
To receive a recessive (bb) trait, you must be ________ for the trait. For ____________(Bb) genes, you show the dominant trait
a.) homozygous b.) heterozygous
polygenic inheritance
inheritance in which a combination of multiple gene pairs is responsible for the production of a particular task
x-linked genes
recessive genes that are located only on the x-chromosome
Men are more susceptible to ________ than women because of the fact that men only have one X chromosome
x-linked genes
down syndrome
a disorder produced by the presence of an extra chromosome on the 21st pair; once referred to as mongolism
fragile x syndrome
a disorder produced by injury to a gene on the x chromosome, producing mild to moderate mental retardation
sickle cell anemia
blood disorder that gets its name from the shape of the red blood cells in those who have it
tay-sachs disease
a disorder that produces blindness and muscle degeneration prior to death; there is no treatment
klinefelter's syndrome
syndrome in males that is characterized by small testes and long legs and enlarged breasts and reduced sperm production and mental retardation resulting from the presence of an extra X chromosome
Just because a disorder has genetic roots does not mean that ______ does not play a role
genetic counseling
the discipline that focuses on helping people deal with issues relating to inherited disorders
ultrasound sonography
a process in which high-frequency sound waves scan the mother's womb to produce an image of the unborn baby, whose size and shape can be then assessed
chorionic villus sampling
a prenatal test to detect birth defects at an early stage of pregnancy that involves taking samples from a hair-like material that surrounds the embryo
the process of identifying genetic defects by examining a small sample of fetal cells drawn by a needle inserted into the amniotic fluid surrounding the unborn fetus
patterns of arousal and emotionality that represent consistent and enduring characteristics in an individual
The environment in which a child is raised can have an effect on the _______ influenced behaviors and traits that they show
Multifactorial Transmission
the determination of traits by a combination of both genetic and environmental factors in which a genotype provides a range within which a phenotype may be expressed
the process by which a sperm and an ovum- the male and female gametes, respectively- join to form a single new cell
germinal stage
the first- and shortest- stage of the prenatal period, which takes place during the first two weeks following conception
a conduit between the mother and fetus, providing nourishment and oxygen via the umbilical cord
embryonic stage
the period from 2 to 8 weeks following fertilization during which significant growth occurs in the major organs and body systems
fetal stage
the stage that begins at about 8 weeks after conception and continues until birth
a developing child, from 8 weeks after conception until birth
the inability to conceive after 12 to 18 months of trying to become pregnant
artificial insemination
a process of fertilization in which a man's sperm is placed directly into a woman's vagina by a physician
In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
a procedure in which a woman's ova are removed from her ovaries, and a man's sperm are used to fertilize the ova in a laboratory
a environmental factor that produces a birth defect
fetal alcohol syndrome
cognitive disorder caused by the pregnant mother consuming substantial quantities or alcohol during pregnancy, potentially resulting in mental retardation and delayed growth in the child
fetal alcohol effects
a condition in which children display some, although not all, of the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome due to the mother's consumption of alcohol during pregnancy
the embryonic stage is characterized by:
the embryo develops three laters, which are the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm
The germinal stage is characterized by :
cell division and the attachment of the oragnism to the wall of the uterus (fertilization) and cell multiplication
the fetal stage is characterized by:
the rapid growth and refinement of organs and bodily functions to prepare the fetus for the outside world
Humans start out as a singular cell, in which the sperm pushes through the ovum creating a ________, eventually fusing to create a ________
a.) gamete b.) zygote
Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model
the concept that humans are influences by multiple different factors within their environment
the two main approaches of behavioral genetics are:
How much or a particular characteristic can be attributed to genes? How do genes and environment work together to shape unique behavioral characteristics of individuals?
range of reaction
our genetic make-up makes us respond in unique ways to the environment
genes restrict outcomes
genetic-environment correlation
our genes influence the environment they are exposed to
heritability rates
variations within a group; the portion of differences attributable to genetics
an emerging area of scientific research that examines how the environment influences the expression of our genes
our genotype influences the range of expression for a __________
the term used for newborns
A protein called ___________ triggers the release of various hormones that being the process to birth
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
When oxytocin levels become high enough the mother's uterus begins ______
periodic contractions
surgical incision of the perineum to enlarge the vagina and so facilitate delivery during childbirth
apgar scale
a standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health in newborns
apgar stands for
appearance (color), pulse (heart rate), grimace (reflex irritability), activity (muscle tone) and respiration (respiratory effort)
a restriction of oxygen to the baby, lasting a few minutes during the birth process, which can produce brain damage
close physical and emotional contact between parent and child during the period immediately following birth, argued by some ti affect later relationship strength
There is little evidence for a ____________ in humans immediately after birth
critical bonding period
lamaze birthing technique
makes use of breathing techniques and relaxation training, in which mothers are "coached", typically by the father-to-be in weekly training sessions in which they learn exercises that help them to relax various parts of the body, which helps relax the body during labor
bradley method of childbirth
a method that prepares a mother for natural childbirth by providing education and exercises and nutrition and techniques of breathing and relaxation
involves a form of self-hypnosis during delivery that produces a sense of peace and calm, thereby reducing pain
water birthing
a practice in which a woman enters a pool of warm water to give birth
preterm infants
infants who are born prior to 38 weeks after conception, puts at high risk for illness or death
low-birthweight infants
infants that weigh less than 2,500 grams
very-low-birthweight infants
weight less than 1,250 grams or, regardless of weight, have been in the womb less than 30 weeks
postmature infants
infants still unborn 2 weeks after the mother's due date, also put at risk
Difficulties with __________ babies can be easier prevented, often involving inducing labor
small-for-gestational-age infant
an infant whose size and weight are considerably less than the average for babies of the same age
cesarean delivery (c-section)
a birth in which the baby is surgically removed from the uterus, rather than traveling through the birth canal
Fetal Monitor
a device that measures the baby's heartbeat during labor
the delivery of a child who is not alive, occurring in fewer than 1 delivery in 100
infant mortality
death within the first year of life
Postpartum depression, a period of deep depression following the birth of a child, affects some ___ percent of all new mothers
postpartum depression
a period of deep depression following the birth of a child
unlearned, organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli
the decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus
states of arousal
different degrees of sleep and wakefulness, ranging from deep sleep to great agitation
the organic process whereby a fertilized egg becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus
environmental influences on prenatal development are:
Diet/nutrition, exercise, Teratogens, Stressors, Age of mother/father, and Previous birth experiences
The embryonic period lasts for ___ weeks
6 weeks
At 12 weeks, the fetus starts to _____
What does the psychodynamic perspective state about behavior in development?
behavior is determined by underlying unconscious thoughts
what was the earliest views on child development?
Children in medieval Europe were viewed as tiny adults, and there was no "child status"
John Locke viewed a child as a _______
blank slate
Rossaeau argued that children were _______ and were born with an innate sense of right and wrong/morals
noble savages
In the 1700s Germany, children were mainly studied using ___________, recording milestones of their children
baby biographies
As the adult population increased, there became a bigger distinction between the _______ and _______ allowing them to focus on a child's personal growth and education
a.) adult b.) child
Who opened a new kind of preschool based on theories of how children naturally learn?
How does gene canalization show the interaction between genetics and the environment when explaining behavior?
genes canalization restricts the possible outcomes, but behaviors can still change within a certain range based on environmental factors (ie resources given, home environment, etc) ex: a kid can have the genetic predisposition to be athletic, but may not be exposed to sports opportunities, etc
Which type of research design would be the most effective if a researcher is investigating motor skill milestones in children?
What is the difference between reliability and validity, and what makes them equally important in research?
reliability is whether you can get the same results again, while validity determines if your experiment is measuring what it is supposed to. Both are important because they help determine if your research is accurate or not.
Describe how culture can influence a child's development and provide and explain at least one example
Some possible examples: if culture promotes certain personality traits over others being in a social environment can encourage extroversion gender norms in different cultures whether a culture promotes certain skills over other (ie academic vs athletic) etc
What are some contextual factors that influence behavior?
SES, family dynamics, culture, etc
What can we learn from the Minnesota twin study and how does it relate to the conversation of nature vs. nurture?
it shoes how environment have a certain control over behaviors and personality, but large aspects (about 50%) are due to genetics
Which level in the Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Model accounts for the influence of time and historical events like COVID-19?
What type of study allows us to understand cause-and-effect relationships?
experimental design
How does Exosystem differ from Mesosystem?
exosystem is the larger environment outside of direct influences, while the mesosystem is the interactions between different environments
Identify the key differences in Erikson's stages of Psychosocial Development
The stages are: trust vs mistrust, autonomy vs shame and doubt, initiative vs guilt, industry vs inferiority, identity vs role diffusion, intimacy vs isolation, generativity vs stagnation, ego-integrity vs despair
What's the differences between Critical Period and Sensitive Period?
a critical period is when an event has its greatest consequences while a sensitive period is when organisms are sensitive to environmental stimuli
What would be considered a teratogen?
drugs, diet, toxic chemicals, medications, etc
As it gets hotter, ice cream sales increase. this is a ______ correlation