Biomed- Infectious Diseases

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provides an additional layer of protection has a thinner epithelium layer because it is in the nose, gut, and respiratory tract if the epithelium was not thinner than normal, these could not function works with the cilia
Intestinal Epithelium
One layer thick similar to mucus cells are sealed together tightly
What are 2 microbial factors?
versatility- pathogens that can be transmitted through multiple routes infectious dose- number of organisms required to infect a host
B cells
attack invading cells on the outside of the cell produce antibodies
have enzymes that break down bacteria can flush out bacteria lubricate the eye
Stomach Acid
has a pH level of 1.5 to 3.5 lowers the chance of pathogens getting into the intestines
the bottom layer of the skin
What layer are fingerprints found on?
(answer to question) fingerprints also called "friction ridges" are found in the dermis (specifically the papillary layer)
Adipose tissue
the seams of fat that make up the hypodermis they provide cushioning and insulation
an external barrier that separates the inside and outside of the body made of several thick layers few pathogens can get in bottom is sterile
chemicals that keep unwanted microbes in check and support symbiotic commensal bacteria (good bacteria)
proteins that recognize specific invading microbes and mark them for destruction
T Cells
attack invading pathogens inside the cell coordinate immune responses kill infected host cells can recognise invaders even if they are well camouflaged
unicellular eukaryotic organisms with chitinous cell walls
Spanish Flu
A pandemic that killed 50-100 million people was a strand of either pig or bird flu mainly affected people from ages 20-40 most devastating pandemic ever (not including COVID)
an insect or small animal carrying a disease
noncellular particles made of genetic material protected by a protein shell and sometimes and envelope
the name for microbial agents that can cause disease
infectious diseases can be transmitted through...
(answer to a question) the air, physical contact, and surfaces
Infectious disease
a clinically clear illness with symptoms resulting from the presence of microbial agents (must be transmissible)
Infectious agents
pathogens, microbes, viruses, protozoa, parasites, etc.
single celled prokaryotic cells
organisms invisible to the naked eye
an impairment of overall health
eukaryotic microbes that aren't fungi
different mutations of a pathogen
Commensal microbiota
non-pathogenic (can't get you sick) microbes that occupy our skin, respiratory, digestive, and urogenital tracts and protect us from other pathogens by competing for space
Immune status
the system's ability to defend itself
Internal tissue damage
injuries of the muscles, tendons, and ligaments causes you to be more exposed to microbes
a disease that spreads across continents (worldwide)
Center for Disease Control and Prevention protects the public by giving medical advice
protection conferred on a host by vaccination with one strain of a microorganism that later protects against a slightly different strand
the number of microbes the host has been exposed to
relaxation and contraction of muscles in the small intestine that propels food through the digestive system
Route of transmission
the path a microbe takes to travel from an infected host to an uninfected one
the passing of a communicable disease from an infected host to an uninfected host
How can microbes get in the body?
(answer to question) under the skin; cuts burns wounds transplants needles vectors
Columbus and his plagues
smallpox and measles were carried from Europe to the Americas by the Spanish Columbus took Syphilis back to Europe from the Americas Bioterrorism began (the English would throw blankets with smallpox on it on the Native Americans)
protects the bacterium from the physical stress helps it camouflage
Cell wall
protects the plasma membrane
helps the bacteria survive in difficult conditions or when dormant
how the bacteria stick to surfaces
the area in the cytoplasm of a bacteria that the DNA is found makes cell division more efficient
How many bacterial cells are in one eukaryotic cell?
(answer to question) around 1,000 bacterial cells can fit in one eukaryotic cell
How many viral cells can fit in one bacterial cell?
Around 8,000 viruses can fit in one bacteria
the outmost layer of skin
the middle layer of skin where the epithelium gets its oxygen and nutrients
the unusual rapid spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time
what forms the protective layer of the skin and mucosal membranes
How can microbes get to the mucosal membranes?
(answer to question) mouth nose ears genitourinary tract mother to child
protects the capsid when present composed of lipids and proteins contains receptor proteins needed to attach to host cells
Gram negative cell wall
have less murein (polysaccharide) and have an outer membrane LPS is a major lipid found here the slightest trace of LPS can be identified as foreign makes you SUPER SUPER sick
a highly contagious disease caused by a virus that spreads through the air about 1/3 of the people who get it develop complications such as: pneumonia ear infections diarrhea brain inflammation miscarriage
Bubonic plague
one of the worst plagues killed half of Europe's population started in Central Asia, then expanded to Crimea the people knew it was transmitted by rats but did not know it was the fleas
Antonine plague
was either a smallpox or measles variation one of the first plagues recorded hit Rome and slowed the expansion of the Roman Empire was an epidemic
chemicals produced by the liver that kill bacteria in other invading cells by punching holes in their cell membranes
identify invading microbes using receptors eat microbes
Non-sterile body parts
(answer to question) skin mouth stomach intestines upper respiratory tract
a viral disease with very high mortality rate of about 30-35% the last smallpox case that occurred naturally was 1977 the only human infectious disease to be completely eradicated form the planet samples still exist in labs in the US and Russia
Sterile body parts
(answer to question) brain spinal fluid heart liver blood muscles
Apocrine sweat glands
less abundant sweat glands (only 2000 of them) found in the groin and armpits don't start functioning until puberty
Eccrine sweat glands
more abundant sweat glands found in palms, forehead, and soles of feet
where the gene of a virus are located inside the capsid can be DNA or RNA codes for viral protein
a protein that covers the genome protects the genome composed of protein contains enzymes needed for replication
a circular piece of DNA found in a prokaryotic cell are not critical to life but can produce toxins (ex: botulism) can make bacteria resistant to antibiotics transfer easily through sex pili
Gram positive cell wall
cell wall made of multiple layers of murein murein helps it survive in low or high salt concentration murein and LTA (major lipid) are recognized as foreign