Unit 01 DCUSH

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Located in the Yucatan Power 300-900 A.D. Population of around 60,000 Developed the numeral system based on units of 20, hieroglyphics, multiple calendars, and knowledge of astronomy Polytheistic with a center around nature
Settled in Valley of Mexico around 1200 A.D. Capital City: Tenochtitlan founded in 1325 Largest city in the Western Hemisphere by 1500 (Mexico City) Spanish arrived in 1519 By that time the Aztecs controlled from the Pacific to the Gulf Coast Led by Montezuma
Led by Atahualpa Empire stretched 2500 miles across the Andes Mountains Machu Pichu Population estimates of up to 10 million
Hohokum + Anasazi
Located in Arizona and Northern Sonora (Pueblo Region) Cultivated Maize, corn, cotton, squash, and beans built irrigation canals to water crops farming depended on rain and floods for water
Plain's Natives
Tribes included Arapaho, Cheyenne, Comanche, Apache, etc. Nomadic, hunter-gatherers Typical Prey is Bison and would move to follow the herds
Atlantic Slave Trade
Over 4 centuries Africa lost more than 10 million people Typically African slavery was a prisoner of war system or to banish kinfolk. Primarily a social system for people cut off from their own society Plantation system began in 1452 for sugar plantation off of Madeira (Portuguese owned) Extremely high mortality rate
Christopher Columbus
Spanish Monarchs Isabella and Ferdinand funded Italian merchant -Skeptical of his calculations of distance -Turned down by John II (Portuguese) in 1484 -Spanish approve in 1492
Amerigo Vespucci
-made 2 voyages on behalf of spain and portugal -He realized it was a large land mass needing to be circumnavigated to reach Asia -Cartographer Maartin Waldseemuller applied Vespucci’s name to the land due to this insight. (Hence “America”)
Columbian Exchange
-The Transmission of disease, knowledge about food and technology, and culture. -Disease was the chief ally of the Spanish -Smallpox was the most lethal -Also had measles, bubonic plague, chicken pox, influenza, whooping cough, and diphtheria. Natives provided corn, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, beans, chocolate, pumpkins
Treaty of Tordesillas 1494
-Established a line of demarcation giving all lands discovered or to be discovered west of the line to Spain, east of the line to Portugal
Hernan Cortes
-approached the Aztecs with a force of 600 men in 1519 -Captured the leader Moctezuma -By 1521 smallpox had taken its toll and Cortes returned to conquer rebuilding it as Mexico City.
Encomienda System
A form of forced and unpaid labour used by Spanish authorities and settlers in the colonies of the Spanish Empire. In return, the labourers were given military protection and the opportunity to be converted to Christianity.
Bartolome de Las Casas
is the first one to speak out against the Repartimiento System, convinced the monarchy that it is wrong and they need to make it illegal.
Catholic Church
Was corrupt and was not stopping people from taking indulgences
Martin Luther
Spearheaded the Protestant Reformation -Wanted to move away from the corrupt Catholic church -Challenged the church (Protested) -Nailed his thesis to the Church door
Protestant Reformation
Protesting for a Reform against the Catholic Church Sent a shockwave through history
King Henry VIII
-Denied by Pope for a divorce from Catherine of Aragon (mother of Mary I) -Wanted to marry Anne Boleyn -Used reformation to break away from Catholic church to pass annulment -Executed Anne after she failed to give a son (mother of Elizabeth I) -Married Jane Seymour: died after giving birth to Edward VI -Next was Anne Cleves: divorced -Then Katherine Howard: Killed -Last Catherina Parr
John Calvin
-attempted to create a model society in Geneva, Switzerland. -Created calvinism
Spanish Armada
-132 warships, 8000 sailors, 18,000 soldiers -set sail for England May 28, 1588 -Wanted to restore it to Cathloicism -English ships were smaller but faster -Out manuevered the Spanish -Storm claimed rest of the Armada -Ended the dominance of Spain and gave rise to the English
Northwest Passage
a water route between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean along the northern coast of North America
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Francis Drake
-English privateer who attacked and looted from Spanish -Circumnavigated globe in 1577-1580 -Looted and burned St. Augustine, Spanish fort in Florida during Spain and England’s conflict.
a member of any of the North American Indian groups speaking an Algonquian language and originally living in the subarctic regions of eastern Canada Dominated Atlantic coast from Canada to Florida Many tribes including: Micmacs, Pequots, Lenapes, and Powhatan Resided in Wigwams
Lived in the Finger Lakes region of central New York Resided in Longhouses Tribes included: Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Vayugas, and the Senecas
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca
He and three fellow survivors became the first Europeans to explore the American Southwest, eventually settling in Mexico
Francisco Pizarro
-Like Cortes, he destroed a powerful society: The Inca’s -Despite being severely outnumbered, he used the Inca’s religion to be accepted as a God -Then captured Atahualpa and forced the Incan’s into submission -Claimed the region for Spain, including their vast wealth.
-The first Englsih settlement in America -Founed by Virginia Company in 1607 -Initial settlers were inept and the colonies struggled -Sturggles pitted colonist against the Powhatan Indians -English made war, enslaved the natives, and confiscated unoccupied lands.
-Ruled by Sir George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, as a proprietary colony -Owned by a person, not a joint-stock company -Created a refuge for Englsh Catholics, but remain profitable -Passsed the Relgious Toleration Act of 1649 in hopes to keep control due to Anglican Englad Puritans take over, rescind the tolertaion act, the persecuted become the persecutors Catholcism is banned.
-Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, established Mayflower Compact to ensure a viable government -Puritans who settled Massachusetts Bay founded strong, moral community of hard workers. -Used their own money to fund the colony -Wanted to ensure success in both God and Man.
-Puritans settled -Created a Gernal Assembly -Subdued Pequot Indians and expanded into New Haven
Rhode Island
Roger Williams -Independent minded -Attacked laws requiring attendance and tax support of churches -Banished England but fled -First settlement to allow complete religious freedom -Complete separation of church and state.
South Carolina
-Planters from West Indies bringing a slave society
North Carolina
-Small planters from Virginia
New York
-Originally New Amsterdam, owned by the Dutch -Consisted of the most ethically diverse location -The English took the territory without firing a shot -Renamed New Netherland
-(last British Colony) established by James Oglethrope -Haven for the poor and buffer zone from Spanish -Successful in creating a buffer zone -Unsuccessful in creating a “Common Man’s Utopia”
-King owed him 16,000 pounds -Petitioned king for permission to establish colony instead -The most notable town named Philadelphia “City of Brotherly Love” - Wanted to make it a haven for Quakers -Colony became profitable but Penn went into debt. - Established by William Penn
The first British colony in America but it failed and was known as the "Lost Colonoy"
Virginia Company
Joint-stock company to establish a colony in America
Sir Walter Raleigh
Queen Elizabeth granted _________ a charter to establish the first colony in America. This colony was named Roanoke and would fail
John Rolfe
Married Pocahontas, first successful cultivator of tobacco in Virginia
The daughter of the Powhatan Chief who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life
Extremely religious based on the bible’s teachings People were born sinners and could only achieve salvation through severe discipline towards God Hard work was a religious requirement Frowned upon blasphemy, sex, gambling, intoxication, even acting
Puritans who completely rejected the Church of England and did not think there could be any reform; arrived on the Mayflower to Plymouth, Massachusetts
Mayflower Compact
First written constitution signed by the Pilgrims on the Mayflower
Roger Williams
Founder of Rhode Island; independent-minded and attacked strict puritanical laws
Anne Hutchinson
-Convinced Bostonians placed too much emphasis on good works and not enough on faith -Felt God spoke directly to her - Did not need the assistance of ministers (men) to interpret God’s will -Went outside of the traditional women’s role by taking a public stand -Banished to Rhode Island
Lord Baltimore
Founder of Maryland, haven for Catholics, passed the Religious Tolerations Act
Algonquian leader who tried to rally against the British settlers
King Philip's War
-Algonquian leader Metacom “King Philip” tried to rally against New England Settlers -Attacked 53 English towns -English fought back with help of the Mohawks -White frontier would not reach its previous border for over 40 years after the war. -Natives were killed in the thousands and many enslaved -clans lost autonomy
Bacon's Rebellion
-Led by Francis Bacon -Wanted to seize the land from the local Indians for tobacco farming -War broke out between settlers and Indians -Bacon nominated to Virginia Council by Governor Berkley -Challeged Berkley’s power, wanting more land and more voice in government. -Rebellion ended with Bacon’s desth (disease) and 23 rebel leaders hanged.
William Penn
Founded Pennsylvania, home to the Quakers
"City of Brotherly Love"
Oliver Cromwell
-led parliament forces to victory in 1648 against Charles I
Salem, Massachusetts
Puritanical farming town Society in disarray after consecutive crisis Negative acts that were unexplainable were often considered supernatural Devil worship Home to the Salem Witch Trials
Middle Passages
-Supply of slaves increased with the “middle passage”
Slave Codes
Black codes were restrictive laws designed to limit the freedom of African Americans and ensure their availability as a cheap labor force after slavery was abolished during the Civil War.
Indentured Servants
People who gained passage to America by vowing to work for a certain period of time as a servant until their debt was paid off
Quakers are the hippies of the religious world Conflict developing between the Puritans and the Quakers -Puritans would whip, crop ears, and even hand Quakers for their “miss teachings” -Quakers wanted a primitive relationship with God and rejected all notions control or inequality
Focused on new ideas and educational growth Founding of colleges, especially in New England Literacy rates rose Less reliance on God in determining fate Spawned scientific and political thinking
Isaac Newton
Focused his theories on physics published in “Principa” This allowed him to predict the movements of the planets, moon, flow of the tide, and the force of gravity
John Locke
“two treatises on Civil Government” -Natural Rights: Ideas of “life, liberty, and property” -Influences Declaration of Independence -Social Contract -Theory that all people give up basic rights to the government to guarantee the citizens natural rights -If the government failed to secure the citizens rights, the citizens had a duty to rebel and establish a new government
Natural Philosophy
the philosophy of natural science, especially physical science.
Benjamin Franklin
Embodied the American spirit during the Enlightenment -Created “Poor Richard’s Almanack” -Founded debating clubs, libraries, hospitals, and College of Philadelphia -Experimented in electricity -Invented bifocal glasses, lightning rod, and Franklin stove
Great Awakening
-Christian Rationalism based on morality and free will but rejected Calvinist belief that salvation came from the grace of God. -Religion revival ensues -New vigorous teachings increased participation and support. -Would frequently occur outside of the church building -Would encourage more open religious acceptance like in Rhose Island
George Whitefield
-used his compelling presence to attract followers -Oversaw by tens of thousands -Including Ben Franklin -Great Awakening speaker
James Oglethorpe
-Founder of Georgia -Haven for the poor and buffer zone from Spanish
First college established in America in 1636 as a result of the Enlightenment
New Light
-New vigorous revivalism in the Great Awakening -Would frequently occur outside of the church building -Would encourage more open religious acceptance like in Rhode Island
Old Light
-Puritanical beliefs and refused to accept the new style of religious teachings -Old teachings in the Great Awakening
Poor Richard's Almanack
-Created by Benjamin Franklin -An encyclopedia of sorts where he wrote random things down
Jonathan Edwards
-Preached on yourself-judgement to Gods salvation
Prince Henry of Portugal
-Discovered another passage to Asia that involved going around Africa rather than through the Mediterranean so Italy would no longer control trade
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Spanish explorers/conquerors