bio ch 53 (.1, .2, .3)

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when two organisms fight over a limited resource such as food, water, space, mates, light
intraspecific competition
when two organisms of the SAME species compete for the same resources
interspecific competition
when two DIFFERENT species are in competition for the same resources
competitive exclusion principle
the local elimination of one of the two competing species
ecological niche
the total of an organism's use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment (or, DON'T USE THIS DEFINITION: an organism's job/role in its environment)
occupy the same niche
two species cannot...
resource partitioning
the division of environmental resources by coexisting species such that the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of all coexisting species
sympatric population
new species evolve from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the SAME geographic region (s stands for...)
sympatric, allopatric
characteristics are more lively to be different in _________ populations of two species than in __________ populations of the same two species
allopatric population
geographic speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents/interferes with genetic interchange
a +/- interaction between species in which one species, the predator, kills and eats the other, the prey (victim)
cryptic coloration
when an animal is camouflaged by its coloring
aposematic coloration
when a poisonous animal is brightly colored as a warning to other animals - the animal is posing
batesian mimicry
when a HARMLESS animal has evolved to mimic the coloration of a poisonous model animal
mullerian minicry (NOT MUNERIAN sorry guys i cant read my own handwriting)
when two bad tasting (one poisonous, one bad tasting ??? but idk) species resemble each other so that predators will learn to avoid both of them equally
a +/- relation in which a herbivore eats parts of a plant/algae
+/- symbiotic relationship where parasite derives nourishment from host which is harmed in the process
a disorder of structure/function in an organism, especially one that produces specific symptoms in a specific location (and it's not simply a physical injury)
interspecific interaction that benefits both species (+/+, symbiotic)
example of mutualism (bees and...)
example of mutualism (acacia tree and...)
an interaction (+/neutral) between species that benefits one and neither helps nor harms the other
species diversity
the number of species (species richness) and relative abundance of species in a biological community
species richness
the total number of different species within a community
relative abundance
differences in the abundance of different species within a community
trophic structure
the feeding relationships between organisms
food chain
the transfer of food energy up trophic levels from its source in plants
make organic from inorganic
consume other organisms to obtain organic compounds
how much energy is lost from one trophic level to the next?
how much energy is available from one trophic level to the next?
is the sun a trophic level?
in a food chain with five organisms, how much energy is left at the last level?
what links all trophic levels?
energetic hypothesis
what hypothesis says that the length of the food chain is limited by inefficiency of energy transfer (what we think is correct)?
dynamic stability hypothesis
what hypothesis says that long food chains are less stable than short ones (probably not correct)?
dominant species
species in a community that are most abundant or have the highest biomass
total dry organic content of an organism (so not water)
keystone species
species that exert strong control over community structure, not necessarily numerically but through pivotal ecological roles
facilitators/ecosystem engineers
a species that has a positive effect on the survival and reproduction of other species in a community, and contributes to community structure, such as beavers
if plant population goes down, herbivore population will go down, then carnivore population will go... (bottom up model)
if the carnivore population goes down, herbivore population will go up, and plant population will go... (top down model)
an event that changes a community
ecological succession
change in species diversity/composition over time
primary succession
a type of ecological succession that occurs in a virtually lifeless area, originally no organisms, originally no soil
secondary succession
occurs when an existing community has been cleared
starting with bare rocks because of something like a volcanic eruption is an example of _______ succession
lacking soil is an example of _______ succession
occurring after an event such as fire, storms, farming, logging, and mining would be an example of _______ succession
having soil present would be an example of ________ succession
not having a seedbank (soil/place that holds seeds) would be an example of ______ succession
which type of succession happens slower?
which type of succession happens faster?
having a seedbank would be a characteristic of which type of succession?
having pioneer species (first plants to get there) of weeds and grass would be a feature of __________ succession
having pioneer species (first plants to get there) of lichen and moss, which are acidic and break rocks into soil, would be a feature of ________ succession
which type of succession starts with bare rock, then has lichen and moss, and THEN has weeds and grass and everything else?
which type of succession starts with soil and then has weeds/grass and everything else?
fires, hurricanes, floods, logging, farming, and humans are examples of...
in succession (both types) it goes weeds/grasses, annuals, and then...
shade tolerant
what is the last thing in succession? (after shade intolerant)
what comes after bare rock in primary succession?