What did the Quota Act (1921) and the National Origins Act (1924) do?
The Quota Act and the National Origins Act established quotas, which meant limiting the number of people who can immigrate to the United States. They only allowed 2 percent of the number of people who already immigrated from a given country to immigrate yearly.
How did they favor immigration from certain regions?
They favored immigration from certain regions as they allowed more European immigrants than Asians.
How did the Immigration Act of 1965 (effective 1968) change the existing quotas laws?
The Immigration Act of 1965 changed the existing quota laws as it eliminated the separate quota laws for each country, and instead, categorized it by hemispheres (170,000 in the Eastern Hemisphere, 120,000 from the Western Hemisphere).
How were immigration laws further changed in 1978?
Immigration laws were further changed in 1978 to have an overarching quota law for the world of 290,000, but a cap of 20,000 for every country.
US immigration law gives preferences to three groups. Identify them
US immigration law gives preference to separated families, skilled workers, and people whose country is underrepresented in US immigration.
What is brain drain?
Large-scale emigration by talented people.
What is a guest worker?
Workers from poor countries who migrate to Western Europe and the Middle East in search of jobs.
What is the impact of guest workers in Europe? Where do they come from? What do they do? How are they different from time contract workers from earlier times?
Guest workers have an impact on Western Europe because they are willing to work labor jobs for lower wages that are usually unoccupied by citizens. Many Western European countries had net-out migration, but with the increase in guest workers, they are tending to change to net-in. In major cities throughout Western Europe like Brussels, Paris, Berlin, and Zurich, guest workers occupy essential jobs like bus drivers, garbage workers, street repairers, and dishwashers. Most guest workers in Europe come from North Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and Asia. This is different from time contract workers because those were Asians that worked on plantations or in mines.
Explain migration from Cuba to the United States.
The United States declared Cuban immigrants as political refugees because of the 1959 revolution which caused the communist government led by Fidel Castro. This meant that the government took over privately owned banks, factories, and farms, and additionally put anybody with opposing political views in jail. Due to this behavior, the United States closed its embassy and prevented companies from doing business in Cuba. Subsequently, 600,000 Cubans immigrated to the United States in the years following, mainly to southern Florida. The second flood of migration occurred in 1980 when Fidel Castro allowed political prisoners, criminals, and mental patients to flee the country. Over 125,000 Cubans fled to seek political asylum in the US, known as the “Mariel boatlift” because of the port that Cubans left from. After 1987, the US only allowed 20,000 Cubans to migrate yearly. This is different from Vietnam and Haiti because Cubans were not considered economic migrants during times of prosecution.
Explain migration from Haiti to the United States.
After the mass migration by boat from Cuba, many Haitians attempted to enter the United States by boat seeking economic advancements, but US officials wouldn’t allow them to stay. From 1957-1986, the Duvaliers were dictators that created a harsh government that also persecuted those who opposed them, but separated the two countries because Haiti wasn’t an ally of the Soviet Union like Cuba. Haitians sued the US government for allowing Cubans to immigrate for the same reasons, and the case was settled by allowing some Haitian refugees into the United States. In 1991, military leaders replaced the elected president in office, which caused many Haitians to flee in small boats. Today, people still attempt to emigrate from Haiti reiterating that the economic factors in their poor country are the most important to emigration. This is different from Cuba and Haiti because the United States voluntarily allowed them to enter as refugees, but Haitians had to sue for even a small amount of migrants to enter.
Explain migration from Vietnam to the United States.
The Vietnam War ended in 1973 when Communist North Vietnam overtook South Vietnam’s capital city, Saigon. The United States had backed South Vietnam, and after the North Vietnam victory, they allowed thousands of people who were pro-South Vietnam to flee in fear of persecution. However, those who did not voice their opinions strongly enough were not able to fir on the evacuation helicopters and attempted to travel by boat. The second flood of migrants came in the late 1980s by boat. but they were no longer categorized as refugees and were denied because they were considered economic migrants. This led them to be placed in detention camps before being sent back to Vietnam. This is similar to Haiti because as a last resort, desperate migrants migrated by boat, and their classification in the United States changed to economic migration. The difference between this and the countries is that though the reason to flee was political and in fear of persecution, it was caused by war.
What are US attitudes towards immigrants?
During the 19th century, Americans were suspicious of immigrants but allowed them to settle the frontier and extend US control. However, once the frontier was seen as dead, Americans began to oppose immigration overall. Southern and Eastern Europeans faced more hostility than Northern and Western Europeans when a government study in 1911 stated that Southern and Eastern Europeans were inferior, more likely to commit crimes, and take up jobs. Recently, Californians and other states voted against undocumented immigrants having the right to daycares, schools, and health clinics.
What are European attitudes towards guest workers?
Many guest workers in Europe are working to support their families back home, so they lead a very humble and lonely life, sending back all of their earnings to their families back home. Though guest workers are meant to stay in the host country temporarily, many stay in the country after their contract is expired. Western Europeans dislike guest workers and support the limitation of their rights. Middle Eastern petroleum exporting countries fear that guest workers will cause political unrest and traditional Islamic customs will be terminated. For example, after the 1991 Gulf War, hundreds of thousands of Palestinian guest workers sympathized with the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait but were expelled.
Why did people migrate interregionally in the past and now?
People migrated interregionally in the past in search of better farmland. Now, people migrate interregionally from rural to urban areas.
What were the primary reasons for the placement of the US population center during the Colonial Settlement (179?)?
The population center during Colonial Settlement was in the Chesapeake Bay. This was because, during this era, almost all settlements were along the Atlantic coast because it allowed for accessible trading with Europe, and the Appalachian Mountains were an intervening obstacle for expansion.
What were the primary reasons for the placement of the US population center during Early Settlement in the Interior (1800-1840)?
The population center during the Early Settlement in the Interior (the early 1880s) was Weston, West Virginia because, during this time period, transportation had improved, allowing the people to sail on the Erie Canal (the most important in 1840). More people showed possibilism with the encouragement of large amounts of inexpensive land near the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River.
What were the primary reasons for the placement of the US population center during Migration to California (1850-1890)?
The population center during the Migration to California (mid-nineteenth century) was Greensburg, Indiana in 1890. This was during the time of Manifest Destiny, and the Gold Rush that started in the late 1840s when more people were moving west, so the population center moved more west to Indiana.
What were the primary reasons for the placement of the US population center during Settlement of the Great Plains (1900-1940)?
The population center during the Settlement of the Great Plains remained in Indiana, only 150 miles away from its location in 1890. This was because movement westward had settled, large-scale emigration from Europe to the East Coast, and because with the railroad expansion and the agricultural revolution, more people settled in the plains.
What were the primary reasons for the placement of the US population center during Recent Growth of the South (1950-2010)?
Between 1940 and 2000, the population center moved westward 250 miles and 75 miles southward to around central Missouri because of the high net migration of southern states.
What was the first “intervening obstacle” which hindered American settlement of the interior of the continent?
What developments in transportation eventually encouraged settlement to the Mississippi?
Why was settlement of the Great Plains slow to come, with settlers passing it by for California and the west coast?
The settlement of the Great Plains was slow to come with settlers passing it by for California and the west coast because there were major pull factors like the Gold Rush and the disinterest in the physical environment that encouraged migrants to settle in the western territory as opposed to the Great Plains.
How did the railroads encourage settlement of the American interior?
Railroads encouraged settlement of the American Interior because farmers received large portions of land, and allowed for trade with the East Coast cities.
What is the population center? In which direction has it been moving?
The population center is the average location of everyone in the United States, and over time it has tended to shift westward, but recently, it has been shifting southward due to migration.
What is the rust belt?
The rust belt is the Midwest and Northeast because of the declining need for factories, which were very large-scale in the past.
What has happened in terms of migration in the rust belt? Why?
People have been emigrating from the rust belt because of the relocation of industries.
What is the sun belt?
The sun belt is the South because of its temperate climates.
What has happened in terms of migration in the sun belt? Why?
Migration has rapidly increased because of newly established companies, which have caused industrial growth.
Explain interregional migration of Russia.
Where? Interregional migration occurred to the Far North of Russia (ranging into part of Siberia).
Why? This occurred in Russia because the Soviets wanted factories to be constructed near the raw materials (not in populated areas), and they didn’t have enough workers living nearby to fill all of the working positions. Hence, the Soviet government stimulated interregional migration. At first, they forced migration, but in later years, they encouraged voluntary migration by raising wages, providing paid holidays, and promising earlier retirement. Many people were reluctant because of the harsh climate and its remoteness, and immigrants temporarily held the positions.
With Russia more closely linked economically to Europe, which region of the country is most likely to attract interregional migration?
Explain interregional migration of Brazil.
Where? From major coastal cities like Rio and Sao Paulo to interior Brazil (Brasilia).
Why? The cities of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo are two of the world’s most populated cities, but the interior of Brazil remained sparsely inhabited.
How? In 1960, Brazil changed its capital from Rio to the newly built Brasilia, which was 600 miles from the ocean. Job opportunities enticed people to migrate.
Explain interregional migration of Indonesia
Where? From Java to less populated islands.
Why? The island of Java makes up ⅔ of the Indonesian population.
How? In 1969, the Indonesian government paid for over 5 million people to emigrate from Java to lesser populated islands by providing families with one-way plane tickets, 5 acres of land, materials to build a house, seeds, pesticides, and a year’s worth of rice.
What is urbanization?
Migration from rural to urban areas
What is suburbanization?
Migration from urban to suburban
What is counterurbanization?
Migration from urban to rural
What are Ravenstein's Laws of Migration?
1. Migration is typically short term
2. Migration occurs in steps
3. Urban areas attract both long distance and rural migrants
4. Every migration creates a counter flow
5. Young single adult males are more likely to migrate than families or females
6. Most migration is due to economic factors
What is transhumance migration?
Migration of nomadic herders from high elevations in summer to low elevations in winter.
What are remittances?
Money sent back to migrants' country of origin
What are the 8 (+1) great modern migrations?
1. Europe to Eastern America, Canada, Africa, Australia, the Caribbean, South America, and Russia. 2. Iberia (Spain and Portugal) to Latin America 3. British Isles to Northeastern US and Canada. 4. West Africa to Eastern South America, the Caribbean, and Eastern America. 5. India to Madagascar, East Africa, Bangladesh, and Asia. 6. China to Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Hawaii, Southern California, and Southern Canada. 7. Eastern North America to the rest of North America. 8. Western Russia to Eastern Russia. 9. Japan to East/Northern California, Brazil, and Hawaii.