where the Meeting at the Golden Gate occured (Mary's Inception) @ second Temple.
Focal point for Jewish worship- Built 10th Cent BCE by Soloman, constructed to house the ark of the covenant (Box that held tablets inscribed eith the 10 commandments). Synagogue- meeting place where torah (scroll with first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible- Genesis, exodus, Leviticus, numbers, deuderotidy) PENTATOOK OR 5 BOOKS OF MOSES. is taught and communal prayer is carried out.
1st: Built by solomon; Spirtitual center of jewish live, courtyards Pillars, entrand=ce and main hall, and inner most chamber (with ark and angels). Description in Bible is about the labor used. Babalonians destroyed temple and took the ark.
Secont Temple: restored by herod, Described TWICE by Flavius Josephus (historian), First immediately after the war (temple as center of resistance) and second commemorates the splendor of the restored temple. it was only partially completed. it was a series of enclosures rising towards summit of hill. women and men are separated within religious practice. mens section held CELLA (basilica-like nave (central Aisle), rectangular and flanked by two aisles. proceeded by vestibules decorated with vines.) composite style architecture- mesopotamian architecture reflection and reference to greek architecture.
Triumphal Procession after the Sack of Jerusalem, Arch of Titus, Rome, 81 CE
commemorates romans domination over jews in Jerusalem, Romans utilize temples to bring own idols and points of worship with them. when they took over Jerusalem Jews refused to allow Romans access to temples/refused to allow their idols inside temples. (they were punished). Happening at Passover, so tageted Jews and pilgrims. Took the prettiest and tallest to parade through the streets of rome (depicted in arch of titus) carrying menorah and candelabrum. anyone who was under 17- either sent to egypt to be a slave or if you were stong, you were sent to provinces to be a gladiator. over 17- killed or starved. records by Flavius Josephus. all that remains is the WAILING WALL- western. also has the dome of the mound
Jewish Catacombs, Rome, 3rd Century CE
weakening of the roman political power- spread of religious power as underground movements. home churches. underground cemetaries found outside of rome. Jewish and christian catacombs coexisting- meet the varied needs of communities. Understand jew from christian areas thru ICONOGRAPHY. 3800 Graves, 13000 sq. Meters. walls and ceilingsd decorated witih motifs- local motifs. Necropolis has inscriptions in Greek.homogenous idealogical world made from jewish compositions- 2 menorahs (OG was a funerary symbol, says "JEWS ARE HERE!), the lost Ark, and Lulavs (date palm) and Etrog (citrus)- plants mentioned in the torah. conical form- rams horn SHOFAR. all of these are identifies of it being JEWISH.
Ark of the Covenant and Menorah, Villa Torlonia, Rome
homogenous idealogical world made from jewish compositions- 2 menorahs (OG was a funerary symbol, says "JEWS ARE HERE!), the lost Ark, and Lulavs (date palm) and Etrog (citrus)- plants mentioned in the torah. conical form- rams horn SHOFAR. all of these are identifies of it being JEWISH.
Ceiling frescoes, Vigna Randanini, Rome
victory crowning and youth- crowning a naked man? ornamented and decorated in a way that isnt strictly jewish. shows a Common ancient world, the idea of an inner heavenly space. animal forms- peacock- different meanings for different religions.
Dura Europos, Syria, 244-45 CE
roman frontier station found on tthe upper euphrades river- captured by persians at 256. this is the oldest jewish synagogue. OG build as a house in a private residential neighborhood (christian house church down the street- coexisting religious) Modest/unimpressive exterior. Interior covered in narrative frescos. 58 narrative episodes and 28 sep. panels left. walls decorated in greco-oriental tradition. copies from scrolls onto walls( theory). daily devotion to get closer to god!
Wall with Torah Niche, Assembly Hall of the Synagogue
on wall opposite of entrance. decoraterd with representations of holy and ritual objects and the sacrifice of Isaac. (demonstrate the dedication of the people of israel- jews are deserving of divine mercy). tora niche decoration: center is the facade of the temple. general structure- 4 columns supporting architrave/lintel. arc placed between central columns (HUGE in reference to the temple) case of ark is closed. to the left: Mnnorah of unusual form (disproportionately large). Etrog and Lulav and palm frond to the side (also big). CLARITY. RIght side is sacrifice of object (oriented vertically, utilize stacking). at the top is the hand of god.
inks sacrifice, temple, and ceremonial items
The Crossing of the Red Sea, Assembly Hall of the Synagogue
a scene from exodus ch 14, israelites fleeing from egyptian captors, moses split sea adn egyptians drown in water. horizontally oriented, coming from a scroll tradition- frontality where you can tell the israelites from everyone else (bc they KNOW the narrative). fish frolicking at the dry floor. hands of god from the top, Moses at the center moving his people (he's HUGE). Greco-oriental visual tradition: heavy outlines, flat and frontal, elongated necks, sense of body under drapery based on legs, varied mvt/poses but mostly just static.
Bet Alfa Synagogue, Galilee, Israel, 6th century CE
in gallilee valley, MOSAICS!!! remains of houses- indic it was in a 5/6th century jewish village. pointed towards jerusalem. has courtyard/atrium into narthex that leads to main prayer hall. no ornamentation to the walls, the decoration is on the floor.
Marianos and Hanina, Nave mosaic floor
Mosaic floor has decorative elements in nave and varied geometric patterns, two rows of ston pillars with central nave and side aisles. (NAVE in Basilica is like central aisle which leads to RAISED APSE). Gallery was a physical space. benches along walls, the BEMA is the raised area, where the reading occurs.
Toledo Synagogue, Toledo, Spain, 1880
Synagogue at Worms, Worms, Germany, 1175, reconstructed 1961
Aquamanile, Northern Germany, Late 12th century
a type of pitcher that you would fill with water from the top of the head. wash your hands before meals or ceremonies. might sit in a cupbord made in norhtern Germany. in 12th century fancy pitchers became usede in european churches and courts for handwashing rituals. became luxury items. in the form of a lion with Hebrew Inscription- Donation from a descendant from the family of Levi.
Haggadah for Passover (the sister Haggadah),
Celebrate Passover- Jews saved and their firstborn sons when Egyptians were smitten. Have a big feast called the Sader- Haggadah organizes the sader meal. COMMUNITY IN THE HOME. RITUALS SAME ACROSS THE ENTIRE COMMUNITY. begins with narratives from old test - Genesis, and Exodus. 34 whole illum. 86 episodes. Bible narratives that are all about saving- Israelites are ALWAYS being saved by god, given the tools to live. celebrate moments of saving humanity.
- COMMUNAL PRAYER IN SYNAGOGUE- location of Bema to get a sense of interior decor inside synagogues, Islamic style lamps, the other side of opening shows sader meal. celebrating in the synagogue AND in the home. ideas of community in sacred spaces and in homes. same prayer, food, and rituals. see family at sader meal table, have 2 Haggadahs, all wearing traditional medieval garb. CONICAL HAT: emblematic to Jews in the middle ages.
SADER PLATE- first known sader plate. utilize non-Jew artisans to create it shown by incorrect hebrew script.
Sarcophogus of Junius Bassus, 359
one of the earliest forsm of christian sculpture, for an important christian figure. decorated with themes of teh good shephard, and old test narratives read as prophecy for the christian religion. utilization of Old Test NArratives= TYPOLOGY. roman organizational techniques, two registers, roman architecture HOLDS narratives. figures are made to t=look like baby dolls- Neo Platonism
San Vitale, Ravenna, 526-547
Roman example as taken over by christians (Syncretism). Centrally Planned.it is a martyreum. San Vitale is buried in foundation. Rotunda/nave is capperd by dome, derives from masoleum tombs of roman emperors (MAGNIFICENCE!!). dome=heaven, walk around in the ambularoty. 8 sides (octogon is symbol of resurrection.)
Emperor Justinian and His Attendants, San Vitale
Bringing bread for mass, standing on Christ's RIGHT SIDE- hierarchy of place and scale. Flanked by military and clerical attendants. clerics closest to the apse. Justinian is with the clerics. the military is next to Jesus (protect him) Justinian has a halo, not a sign of holy just that he is a saint. (roman tradition). Bishop (labelled) standing closer to center. justinian has 12 attendants like Jesus 12 apostles. monogram of shield- Chi Ro, means Justinian rules in the name of christ. justinian has fancy shoes.within Heavenly Sphere
Christ Enthroned, Flanked by Angels, St. Vitalis, and Bishop Ecclesius
Donor image- donating to christ. Christ wears purple imperial robes. Hight hand of christ is St. Vitale who passes the golden wreath. Bishop donating. Use curved space to understand figure and line. no sense of body under robes., in paradise surrounded by gold.
Empress Theodora and Her Attendants
bringing wine for mass. Processing from the Galleryladies of waiting and govt officials (closest to Jesus in composition). ct ladies in patterned silks. Theodora is not overlapped (hierarchy of place) and she has halo of honor. Her robes show royalty giving gifts to christ.
Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of Hagia Sofia, Istanbul, 532-537
Most important monument from Justinians reign over Byzantium. architects are masters of geometry (anthemius- mathematician). was a COURT Church (not a basilica). only super elite could enter. surrounded by the palace of the emperor and he had his own entrance.1453 become mosque and the mosaics were whitewashed. dome pressures = pendentives.
Rebecca at the Well, Page from the Vienna Genesis
ONLY the book of Genesis. imperial manuscript bc parchment is dyed PURPLE and the script is SILVER. text directly above illumination. Not meant to train the illiterate just adds more context. contemporary elements added to make lessons applicable to modern reader. is a continuous narrative. circular composition. models get shared and creates common illumination representations.
Entry into Jerusalem, Rossano Gospel
Byzantine. the evangelists- first person accounts of the life of Christ. purple pages and silver text- IMPERIAL. pictures precede the text bc the reader is aware of the story before they read it. groundline at the TOP. text is a pillar for the prophets (new on old) adding voracity to new testament.
Virgin and Child Enthroned between Saints and Angels
Byzantine. roman facial modeling. direct connection between god, mary and Jesus. ( hand of God shining a light onto them). Mary is REGAL not maternal.
Crucifixion of Iconoclasts, Chludov Psalter
Byzantine. Church vs. State due to rise of islam (Iconoclasts).
Church of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
Virgin and Child Enthroned, Sanctuary Apse, Hagia Sophia
Byzantine. celebrate the triumph of orthodoxy. represent early icon forms. positioned in apse above windows= elevated above the heavenly sun glow. Christ is Frontal and on the main axis of the virgin. Mary is motherly (suggested through positioning of the hand)
Monastery Church, Daphne, Greece
Christ Pantocrator, Dome Mosaic
Byzantine. Making formal connections between OLD empires and NEW ones . He is full faced, left hand holds gospel and teh right hand blesses. he is both the judge and the lover of mankind. he is in the heavenly sphere, ruler of teh universe. Old testam,ent figures support the BASE below him. he is mature and bearded. located on the SQUINCHES of the Monastery church in Greece.
The Crucifixion, Monastery Church, Greece
Byzantine. emotional portrayal of christ. Blood leaking onto adams akull.
Lindisfarne Gospel Book
Insular Art. ONE person wrote this on behalf of god- it was a devotional practice. Matthew writing his gospels his evangelist symbol (angel) is above him. The angel is giving him mystical power and word from god. His name is written in Greek and in Latin. very FLAT, composite pose not much perspective. Suggestive of Byzantine Motifs, Footwear and trumpet.
Matthew Writing His Gospel, Lindisfarne Gospel Book
Cross and Carpet Page of St Matthew's Gospel
Displays the importance of textiles as a relic of christ. Objects (words) swaddled by textiles, folds on top of text. Opening page Font size decrease = more work to read it = Payiong more focus to text. Anglo Saxon Metalwork- awarteness of visual vocabulary, twisted animal forms similar to carpet pages.
Book of Kells, Chi Rho page
First two letters of the name of Christ in greek (X+P) SPirals, Decor, Mice and cats abttele over the body of christ.
Virgin and Child enthroned with angels, Book of Kells
Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany. .Carolingian
Charlemagne- Impose christianity HE IS THE FIRST HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR. Paletine chapel: only for charlremagne. Hold important relics. Dedicated to christ and Mary. Central plan with Octogon (8 DAYS RESURRECTION AND REBIRTH). DOme in church= heaven. has Spoliated columns, from rome. link current to past. CAROLINGIAN. charlemagne sat in gallery space ALONE, high up so he could see everything and everyone could see him.
St. Matthew the evangelist, Coronation Gospels. Carolingian
From the PALACE school, no evangelist symbols, niche is architectural, framing device, seems like panel painting. palace style is NOT typical. this is from aachen.
St. Matthew, Ebbo Gospels. Carolingian
REIMS style, intense and painterly, framing convention, differemttreatment of landscape. Unification of landscape anf thr figure. matthews angel is there giving him ink
Abbey Church of St. Denis, France. Gothic
Chartres Cathedral, France. Gothic
Chartres Cathedral, Royal Portal, West facade
Right Portal- Scenes from the Infancy of Christ:
Left Portal- Ascension or the Second Coming:
Central Portal- Ascension or the Second Coming:
Chartres Cathedral, Last Judgement, Rose Window, Interior West Facade
Chartres Cathedral, Life of Christ lancet windows,
Infancy of Christ- Entry into Jerusalem, Virgin and Child Enthroned.
Passion of Christ- Crucifixion and Deposition of Christ
Virgin and Child of Jeanne d'Evreux
Gothic- Gifted by Jeanne d'Evreux (The last Capetian queen of France) to St. Denis. Displays new tradition for reliquaries- Mary is holding it inside her hand, in the Fleur de Lis (reliquary) (piece of cloth, drop of marys milk, and a hair (relics)). a singular element within her hand. the base has enamel depictions of the life of Christ. Mary is in gothic sway, baby Jesus on her hip (classic gothic pose- elongated and elegant). Mary and Jesus PATERNAL interaction- Jesus is chin-chucking Mary.
Jean Pucelle, The Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux
Kiss of Judas and the Annunciation. a Book of hours-basically a Medieval Bestseller- literacy in middle ages is not gendered it is CLASSED. (higher classes are literate). this book of Hours was a gift to Jeanne d'Evreux from husband (Charles IV) at the time of their marriage. it is TEENY TINY (fits within hands- intimate) intended for home devotional worship. the hours are broken into 8 devotional hours- each of which has prayers associated with it. (DAY STRUCTURE AND PRAYER STRUCTURE). contains portrait of Jean d'Evreux kneeling at her Prie-dieu (kneeler) with her book of hours. heavy utilization of GRISAILLE- WAY OF MODELLING FIGURES IN GREY. GIVES IMPRESSION OF IVORY SCULPTURE WITHIN THE MANUSCRIPT. (popular within period). The Annunciation: Holy spirit in the form of a dove, coming out in the rays- into Mary's Body. kiss of Judas: Mary mirrors (echoes) Jesus in gothic sway posture- they are across the book's gutter from each other. betrayal happening, posture echo mary, beginning of Christ's life and his death.
The Crusader Bible (Morgan Picture Bible)
contains the Drunkenness of Noah, Tower of Babel, Sacrifice of Isaac, Lot Taken Captive. miniatures represent the greatest visualizations of Old Test Narratives EVER. Only portions of the bible (genesis, exodus, Joshua, Judges, ruth and samuel) 48 FOLIOS (page- front and back) depicting over 350 episodes, 40% of many is devoted to scenes from King David's Life. Stories in General focus on Heroes thru history of Israel and provide models of kingship to be avoided or followed. LUXURIOUS MANUSCRIPT- a lot of BLUE AND GOLD.. not everyone has one of these. stories not set in holy lant, they're set in 13th century France- Tower of Babel: 13th cent workers! same fashion, tech, etc contemporary as they build the tower. MIRRORING LEARNING CONTEMPORARILY. Figures are Naturalistic, Monumental, Narrative detail. Heavy Narrative detail shows the illuminators Knew what they were doing w firsthand models (emph contemporary iconography). OG there were no captions: story was solely told thru the images. (BY COSTUMIN GU CAN TELL WHO EVERYONE IS. DIAGONAL PANELLING OF CELLS DRIVES VIEWERS EYE ACROSS PAGE TO TELL NARRATIVE)
The Chartreuse de Champmol, Dijon, France
Druet de Dammartin (architect). Northern Renaissance- MONUMENT TO A VALOIS DUKE coming out of the northern renaissance french dynasty. they made their mark thru their artistic patronage. this monument asserts their Legitimacy as kings of France and Kings of Christendom. CARTHUSIAN MONASTERY- outskirts of France (dijon) which was capital of Burgundy. Monks do not speak except for 2 hrs/week. each monk has own cell and get together once a day for Mass, and once a week in chapter house where they can speak about what was going on. Only allowed 2 books at any given time. Founded (1383) by Philip the Bold to provide dynastic burial place for Dukes of Burgundy. RIVAL ST. DENIS (monument to French royal lineage). Lavish works of art thru the monastery. 1388- Church was consecrated and housed 24 Monks (not the usual 12). ( MONASTERY WITH BURIAL BECAUSE: pays monks to pray for him and family to get into heaven.) PILGRIMAGE SITE BC OF MOSES WELL. indulgences were given at Moses well (encourage pilgrimages) so they also pray for dukes. duke and dutchess have private area on the second floor for special viewing. only Philip the Bold and John the Fearless are buried here. visual programming starts at CLAUSE SUTER PORTAL.
Portal Sculpture , chartreuse de champmol, Clause Sluter
Trumeau- Virgin and Child
Left jamb sculpture- Philip the Bold and John the Baptist
Right jamb sculpture- Margaret of Flanders and St. Catherine
Not a secular narrative on portal, Margaret and Philip just praying. No Heirarchy of scale with saints flanking them. Saints closer to use (more mortal- act as intermediaries btw us and Mary at the trumeau) Figures had space between their placements. Clause Sluter - Purposeful design decisions with space above Kneeling Figures: all breaking out of the spacial cylinder.
Purposeful overwhelming pedestals!: active bunched drapery.
at the trumeau- drapery flowing down over pedestal, Not realistic. Utilize gathering of fabric to create DIAGONALS, movement in fabric, emphasize figure. Mary in Gothic sway, baby Jesus sit on gathered fabric- arms missing, he used to point at Philip the Bold (engagement) MATERNAL. at base- MONOGRAMS (Ms & Ps) monograms found thru the sculpture so everyone knows who its all about. Praying Kneeling- New Motif, a little new a little weird = MEMORABLE!!!!!! John the Baptist supported by Old Test Narratives, Under Philip - Code of Arms of Philip (legit portraiture of the period).
Jean Malouel, Pieta
Saint Denis Altarpiece, Jean Malouel (finished by Henri Bellchose)
Crucifixion Altarpiece, Jacques de baerze and Melchior Broederlam
Clause Sluter, Well of Moses
Clause Sluter, Tomb of Philip the Bold
Jean de Beaumetz, Crucifixion with a Carthusian Monk
Merode Altarpiece, Workshop of the Master of Flemalle.
Christ Mocked (The Crowning with Thorns), Hieronymus Bosch
The Altar of the Holy Blood, Church of Saint James, Tilman Riemenschneider
Isenheim Altarpiece, Nikolaus Hagenauer and Matthias Grünewald
Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy
Maestà Altarpiece, Duccio, 1308-11
Virgin and Child in majesty surrounded by angels and saints. central front panel
Annunciation, front predella panel
pointed and rounded arches.
Entry into Jerusalem, back panel
VERTICAL ORIENTATION. stacking. all figures are the same size. jerusalem makes the BG instead of Cont Narrative (common)
Made by student of Duccio(?), gold leaf BG with raised words under gold leaf. shows the mix of styles from artists travelling and learning from eachother. gothic architecture inspired.
Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel
built on the remains of an arena, commissioned by Enrico Scrovegni so people would pray for him to get into heaven. Rich blue walls (money). theatre plays would happen here.
Giotto, God the Father in Heaven and The Annunciation. East Wall
Giotto, Meeting at the Golden Gate
Mary's conception at the temple of jerusalem. they are kissing (scandalous)
Giotto, Rising of Lazarus
emotional, crowd shows a lot of different reactions. christ in focus..
everybody is grieving. very emotional .
Giotto, Entry into Jerusalem
usual shit with the entry. potato sack giotto.
Giotto, Last Judgement
heaven and hell depictions, sky opening to show jerusalem, weird Mandorla around christ its rainbow scaley.
St. Mark's Basilica
Fra Angelico, Virgin and Child with Saints (San Marco Altarpiece), 1438-43
Fra Angelico, Annunciation, San Marco Monastery, Florence, c. 1440-1445, fresco
Fra Angelico, Annunciation, Cell 3
Baccio Pontelli, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome
Commissioned by Pope Sixtus IV, and continued construction by Pope julius II- DELA ROVERE family of popes.
Pietro Perugino, The Delivery of the Keys, 1482
Michelangelo, Creation of Adam, Sistine Chapel Ceiling
Raphael (design) and Pieter van Aelst (weaver), The Miraculous Draught of Fishes