Chemistry Ch 1 & 2

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61 Terms
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the study of matter and the changes it undergoes
anything that has mass and takes up space
simplifies something in the world in order to explain, describe, or represent it
assumptions about the world based on their worldview
answers questions that determine how we look at the world
quantitative data
data in the form of numbers determined through measuring
qualitative data
data in the form of words used to describe something
deductive reasoning
proceeds from general statements called premises to a specific conclusion
inductive reasoning
proceeds from known data to an unknown general conclusion. Uses data to to draw conclusions but it cannot prove these conclusions to be completely certain
a suggested explanation for a scientific question
a way to observe a natural process, sometimes under controlled conditions, to know if their hypothesis is correct
factors that change
dependent variable
the factors of an experiment that change in relation to the independent variable
independent variable
the variable that the scientist changes
a process that involves randomly selecting representative samples from a larger population; relies on inductive reasoning
offers explanations of what we observe; can be thought of as scientific models
Scientific Law
a statement that describes a recognizable, repeating pattern in nature. It is based on observations made under many different conditions. They are often stated in mathematical equations.
physical properties
determined by how the particles that compose the material relate to one another
extensive property
does depend on the amount of substance present; e.g. weight, mass, volume, length
intensive property
a property of matter that doesn't matter how much of the substance is present; e.g. boiling point, color, temperature, density
the amount of matter packed into a given volume; density=mass/volume
material that can be hammered into shapes or thin sheets; most metals are malleable
materials that can be drawn into long thin wires
the ability to conduct electricity
chemical properties
describe how matter acts in the presence of other materials; how it changes composition when sufficient energy is added to it
physical changes occur...
without changing the identity of the material
chemical changes occur...
by changing the identity of the material
pure substance
consists of only one type of matter; made up of elements of compounds
a material that can be separated into two or more pure substances by physical changes
heterogeneous mixture
appears to consist of 2 or more materials segregated into distinct regions called phases
when particles are suspended in a liquid or gaseous phase
homogeneous mixture
show only a single phase; also known as solutions
consisting of large molecules of one substance through a second substance
colloid examples
milk, gels, mayonnaise, butter
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance my ordinary chemical means; has only one type of atom
basic particles that make up elements
pure substances that consist of 2 or more elements chemically combined
formula unit
crystalline arrays with repeating arrangements of ions
operational description of energy
the ability to do work
mechanical energy
objects moving or having the ability to move
thermal energy
perceived by transfer of heat energy; the sum of the kinetic energy of an object's particles
acoustic energy
if particles move in a periodic way (like waves)
electromagnetic energy
the movement of charged particles creates magnetic fields, which in turn affect other charged particles or magnetic fields; includes visible light and all other waves on the spectrum
chemical energy
when charged particles move between atoms, atoms form and break bonds with other atoms
nuclear energy
when a nucleus breaks apart or when particles are added to or removed from a nucleus
the study of movement and conversion of energy, especially thermal energy
Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy/ The Law of Entropy
mass can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only change from one form to another
the measure of the dispersal energy
Second Law of Thermodynamics
all natural processes tend toward the highest entropy and minimum usable energy
internal energy
the sum of the potential and kinetic energies of its component particles; measured as temperature
heat transfer
the transfer of thermal energy between two objects or substances
the quantity of thermal energy transferred from one object to another
release of energy
absorption of energy
Third Law of Thermodynamics
it is impossible to reach absolute zero
gas to liquid
liquid to gas
liquid to solid
solid to liquid
solid to gas
gas to solid