Nutrition Overview/Scientific Method Exam Review

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35 Terms
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a systemically organized body of knowledge...on a particular subject
Scientific Method
process that is used to find answers to questions about the world around us
educated guess based on observations and the knowledge of the topic
Independent Variable
what is being used + changed to determine dependent variable
Dependent Variable
what's being measured
Controlled Variable
what stays the same
Confounded Variable
unanticipated x-factor testing validity
info gathered during experiment
Primary Literature
publications that report the results of original scientific research
Secondary Literature
publications that synthesize and condense what is known on specific topics, use primary sources
Scientific Method in Nutrition
nutrition scientists discover health effects of food and nutrients by observations
Food Choices
- personal preference - habit - ethnicity - social interactions - availability, convenience, economy - positive and negative associations - emotions - values - bodyweight and image - nutrition and health benefits
6 Classes of Nutrients
Carbohydrates - organic - energy-yielding - macro Lipids - organic - energy-yielding - macro Proteins - organic - energy-yielding, macro Vitamins - organic - micro Minerals - inorganic - micro Water - inorganic - macro
- nutrients needed in large amounts, yield energy, carbohydrate, fat, protein - provide raw material for building tissues, molecules, and regulating body activities - proteins regulate digestion and energy metabolism
nutrients needed in smaller amounts - vitamins, minerals
Produce anything for the body to function
Carbohydrate kcal
4 kcal per gram
Protein kcal
4 kcal per gram
Lipid kcal
9 kcal per gram - higher energy density
Alcohol kcal
7 kcal per gram - not a nutrient
facilitate energy release - almost every bodily action requires assistance from vitamins vulnerable to destruction - heat, light, and chemicals
don't yield energy many essential for chemical reactions in body indestructible - only some can be lost when cooking
Metric System Conversion
Body from lbs to kg - (2.2 lb - 1 kg, 1 lb - 454 g) Height from in to cm - (1 in = 2.54 cm)
Chronic Diseases from Poor Nutrition
Heart disease, cancers, strokes, diabetes mellitus
Healthy Diet Plan
Adequacy - adequate nutrient and energy Balance - enough of different food types Positive Energy Balance - energy input --> energy expenditure
5 Major Food Groups
fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods, and milk
subgroup of both vegetable and protein group
Discretionary Calories
"extras" after nutrient requirement has been met added sugars and fats 100-300 calorie allowance
Food Label Use
consumers make informed choices to store use safely allows people to plan consumption
Restaurant Food Labelling
Portion sizes usually larger than serving sizes Guidelines apply to establishments that are part of a chain of 20 or more
Nutrient Claims
level of nutrient in food EX: fat free, less sodium
Health Claims
characterize the relationship of a food to a disease or health-related condition EX: "cholesterol will be reduced"
Structure/Function Claims
describe effect that a substance has on the structure or function of the body and do not make reference to a disease EX: "supports immunity or digestive health"
Fortified Foods
foods w/ added micronutrients --> vitamins/minerals added
Enriched Foods
nutrients lost during food preparation added back in artificially