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140 Terms
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ionic bonds
transferring one/more electrons from one atom to another
Covalent bonds
sharing electrons between atoms
losing an electrons becoming a positive charge
gaining one/ more electron becoming a negative charge
double covalent bond
sharing two pairs of shared valence electrons
covalent bond shared equally
non-polar covalent
example of non-polar covlaent
chlorine molecules
electrons shared unequally; electronegativity difference that does not equal zero
polar covalent
is water a polar molecule
hydrogen bonding
the attraction between water molecules
compounds that interact with water by dissolving in it
compounds not interacting withing water
what compounds are hydrophobic and what bonds can they not form
non-polar; hydrogen bonds
Ex. why does NaCl dissolve in water?
It because chloride ions and sodium ions attract water molecules
several organic compounds that can have the same molecular formula but w/ different structures
example of isomers
glucose, fructose, galactose
2 types of isomers
structual & stereoisomers
structural isomer
two or more compounds w/ same atoms bonded differently
two or more compounds w/ their atoms bonded in the same wya, but w/ atoms arranged differently in space
stereoisomers can be..
geometric or optical
Geometric isomer definition and example
can have very different physical properties but have the same chemical properties. ex glucose and galactose
Optical isomer def and example
non-superimposable mirror images of each other, have similar chemical and physical properties but enzymes/proteins on the cell membrane can distinguish between them
functional groups
many complex molecules containing groups of atoms with characteristic chemical properties
types of functional groups
hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate
chemical formula for carbohydrates
(CH2O)n ; n= # of carbon atoms in the carbohydrate
carbs can be simple
monomer glucose
If # of carbon atoms in carbs are low (3-7) then its a...
five carbon sugar
glucose, fructose, galactose are...
what is the primary source for energy for cell
formed by the bonding of two monosaccharides
polymers made up of chains of linked monosaccharides
How can living cells, tissues and polysaccharides be broken down into smaller units
examples of nucleic acids
DNA (double stranded) & RNA (single stranded)
what are four bases in DNA
adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
important structural components, source of nutrition, speed up metabolic process in the cell.
polypeptide bonds
are formed in condensation reactions linking amino acids in proteins
what are amino acids composed of
they are composed of a carbon atom bound to a hydrogen atom and three additional groups - an amino group, carboxyl group, and an R-group
two amino acids joined together; may join to form proteins
include fats, phospholipids (in cellular membrane), steroids, terpenes (lipid pigment that operate during photosynthesis)
what are fats composed of ?
glycerol+ 3 fatty acids
what are steroid + terpenes composed ?
carbon rings and carbon chains respectively
fats and oils are composed of what two molecules?
glycerol and fatty acids
fatty acids
hydrocarbon chain that ends w/ carboxyl group (-COOH)
Saturated fatty acids
no double bonds between their carbon atoms; carbon chain is saturated with many hydrogen atoms it can hold
are saturated fatty acids gen solid at room temp?
is fatty acid saturated w/ hydrogen atoms?
true or false: fat molecules are split by hydrolysis for use in cells
phospholipid bilayer
virtually impermeable to charged ions and quite permeable to small lipid soluble molecules
true or false: molecules move through the membrane at different rates
true or false: small non polar molecules can pass the bilayer w/ least resistance
true (enter by diffusion- form of passive transport)
molecules move from regions of high concentration to areas of low concentration
movement of the solvent from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration of water.
carrier proteins
move and change shape to create an opening into the cell.
true false: large uncharged hydrophobic molecules use the proteins to enter the cell q
true ex. glucose
is cellular energy required for the facilitated diffusion process
no - its form of passive transport
gaining of electrons
"oxidation" / "reduction"
applied to many reactions involving ions whether or not oxygen is involved ex. NaCl
true/ false: in NaCl; chlorine is reduced (gaining an electron to form Cl) and sodium is oxidized ( Na loses an electron to form Na+)
when reduction and oxidation are both involed it in a...
redox reaction
cellular respiration is a....
redox reaction in a biological system; high energy electrons are removed from food molecules which oxidizes them and transferred to increasingly electronegative atoms + help manufacture energy rich molecules used by cells to do work
disassociation in water
when this happens positive charged hydrogen ion, and negatively charged hydroxide ion (low concentration)
true/false: hydrogen + hydroxide ions are very reactive
substances that donate H+ ions when it dissolve or dissociate in water; they increase the concentration of H= ions in water solutions
true/ false: concentration of OH- ions increases when bases dissolve or dissociate in water
Water w/ equal concentrations of these ions is....
neutral ; pH 7
pH lower than 7 =
higher concentration of H + ions = acids
pH higher than 7
lower concentration of H+ ions =bases
Acids and bases react to form =
water and a salt (ionic compound)
function of carbs
the primary source of energy for cellular respiration (provides ATP); doesn't provide as much energy as fats because of their hydrophilic groups, easily dissolvable in water.
carbs are a ...
single chain of carbon atoms to which hydroxyl groups are attached; one carbon is double bonded to oxygen to form a carbonyl group
3 types of carbs
monosaccharides (one sugar unit), disaccharides (two sugar units), polysaccharides (>3 sugar units)
one single sugar molecule; typically linear in dry state but can readily form rings in watery solutions
example of monosaccharide
glucose, galactose, fructose
formed when two monosaccharides chemically bond together and a water molecule is given off
what reaction appends when a water molecule is given off form the bond of monosaccharides
dehydration synthesis/ condensation reaction
example of disaccharide
glucose + glucose = maltose ("malt sugar") +H2O
true or false: organisms store metabolic energy contained in glucose by converting it to an insoluble form and depositing it into a specific area
function of polysaccharides
storage of energy and structural support for cells
examples of storage polysaccharides:
lips are considered(non-polar or polar)
non-polar; insoluble
function of lipids
long-term energy storage
lipids are important to the....
cell membrane and chemical signaling , providing protection around organs and insulate the body
four categories of lipids
triglycerides. phospholipids, steroids, waxes
triglycerides are made of two aprts:
1 glycerol (alcohol) and 3 fatty acids (carboxylic acid)
glycerol is composed of
3 carbons and 3 hydroxyl groups
fatty acids are
long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group
types of fatty acids
saturated fatty acids & unsaturated fatty acids
where do unsaturated fats come from
plant oils, fats in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, fish
unsaturated fats are typically....... at room temperature
examples of unsaturated fat + about their bond
linoleic acid - double bond that produces a bend in the fatty acid molecule.
saturated fats contain a..... single/ double bond
double bond
how to forma triglyceride fat
when glycerol reacts with fatty acids, a dehydration synthesis reaction takes place between the hydroxyl group of glycerol and the carboxyl group of the fatty acid, forming an ester linkage
LIPIDS: phospholipids: Diglyceride and phosphate
phosphate- polar ; fatty acid tails- nonpolar
what are phospholipids composed of
phosphate head, glycerol backbone, fatty acid tails
About sterols
compact hydrophobic molecules containing four fused hydrocarbon rings and several different functional groups
example of a sterols
steroid example
vitamin D
what is an important in the cell membrane ?
what are waxes
large lipid molecules composed of long-chain fatty acid bonded to a long chain alcohol
are waxes hydrophobic or hydrophilic
types of proteins and roles
enzymes (speed up chemical reactions in the body), hormones, transport
function of proteins
contractile (help muscles contract), protective (anti-bodies protect against pathogens), membrane proteins (receptors, membrane, transport, antigens), structural (example: keratin forms hair, nails, collagen in skin)
what are proteins made of
amino acids
amino acids are connected to form
unbranched polymers
to become functional proteins, polymers....
fold into specific 3D shapes
how many amino acids and how many of them are essential
20 acids, 8- essential
contain both an acidic (carboxyl) group and a basic (amino) group
how are amino acids joined together
through a dehydration synthesis reaction
what bond connects two amino acid together
peptide bond
what will a polypeptide chain always have
a carboxyl group on one end and an amino group on the other end
what are the 4 levels of protein structure
primary, secondary, tertiary, quanternary
primary protein structures:
specific amino acids that join together using a peptide bond to forma polypeptide
secondary protein structure
repeatedly fold and coils in polypeptide chain due to H-bonds between functional groups
tertiary protein structures
polypeptides form and fold in a specific way making extra bonds between parts of the protein
Quaternary protein structures
two or more polypeptides assemble to form a larger protein
types of secondary structures
the sheet and the helix
what are nucleic acids
informational macro molecules
functions of DNA
storing information regarding the sequence of amino acids for each of the body's proteins
T/F: DNA controls the making of proteins
function of RNA
reads the information coded in DNA and brings it to the protein-making machinery of the cell.; acts as a messenger to help make proteins.
What does DNA and RNA do
DNA: carries the instructions to make protein; RNA allows these instructions to be read by the protein- making machinery of the cell
nucleic acids are polymers of .....
repeating nucleotides
what does a single nucleotide consist of
pentose (5-carbon) sugar, phosphate group, nitrogo=nous base
what are the type types of pentose sugars found in nucleic acids
ribose (RNA) and deoxyribose (DNA)
what are the four nitrogenous bases in DNA
adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
what are adenine and guanine
nitrogenous bases found in DNA that are double-ringed called purines
what are thymine and cytosine
are single-ringed bonded nitrogenous bases in DNA called pyramidines
Nitrogenous bases in RNA
RNA shares the same bases as DNA but Uracil replaces thymine
what happens when forming a polmer
a water molecule is removed as each nucleotide is added to the chain;
what is the bond formed between nucleotides called
phosphodiester bond
DNA is refereed to as a
doubel helix
RNA is referred to as a
single helix
what is an inorganic compound
a compound that doesn't contain both carbon and hydrogen
neutralization reactions are...
transfer of H+ between molecules
redox reactions are..
the transfer of electrons between molecules
hydrolysis reactions are....
molecules reacting with H2O to for other molecules
Condensation reactions are....
molecules reacting to form H2O and other molecules
molecules that react to minimize pH changes in a cell
the measurement of an atoms ability to attract a shared electron pair when it's participating in a covalent bond