(CH2O)n ; n= # of carbon atoms in the carbohydrate
carbs can be simple
If # of carbon atoms in carbs are low (3-7) then its a...
five carbon sugar
glucose, fructose, galactose are...
what is the primary source for energy for cell
formed by the bonding of two monosaccharides
polymers made up of chains of linked monosaccharides
How can living cells, tissues and polysaccharides be broken down into smaller units
examples of nucleic acids
DNA (double stranded) & RNA (single stranded)
what are four bases in DNA
adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
important structural components, source of nutrition, speed up metabolic process in the cell.
are formed in condensation reactions linking amino acids in proteins
what are amino acids composed of
they are composed of a carbon atom bound to a hydrogen atom and three additional groups - an amino group, carboxyl group, and an R-group
two amino acids joined together; may join to form proteins
include fats, phospholipids (in cellular membrane), steroids, terpenes (lipid pigment that operate during photosynthesis)
what are fats composed of ?
glycerol+ 3 fatty acids
what are steroid + terpenes composed ?
carbon rings and carbon chains respectively
fats and oils are composed of what two molecules?
glycerol and fatty acids
hydrocarbon chain that ends w/ carboxyl group (-COOH)
Saturated fatty acids
no double bonds between their carbon atoms; carbon chain is saturated with many hydrogen atoms it can hold
are saturated fatty acids gen solid at room temp?
is fatty acid saturated w/ hydrogen atoms?
true or false: fat molecules are split by hydrolysis for use in cells
virtually impermeable to charged ions and quite permeable to small lipid soluble molecules
true or false: molecules move through the membrane at different rates
true or false: small non polar molecules can pass the bilayer w/ least resistance
true (enter by diffusion- form of passive transport)
molecules move from regions of high concentration to areas of low concentration
movement of the solvent from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration of water.
move and change shape to create an opening into the cell.
true false: large uncharged hydrophobic molecules use the proteins to enter the cell q
true ex. glucose
is cellular energy required for the facilitated diffusion process
no - its form of passive transport
gaining of electrons
"oxidation" / "reduction"
applied to many reactions involving ions whether or not oxygen is involved ex. NaCl
true/ false: in NaCl; chlorine is reduced (gaining an electron to form Cl) and sodium is oxidized ( Na loses an electron to form Na+)
when reduction and oxidation are both involed it in a...
cellular respiration is a....
redox reaction in a biological system; high energy electrons are removed from food molecules which oxidizes them and transferred to increasingly electronegative atoms + help manufacture energy rich molecules used by cells to do work
disassociation in water
when this happens positive charged hydrogen ion, and negatively charged hydroxide ion (low concentration)
true/false: hydrogen + hydroxide ions are very reactive
substances that donate H+ ions when it dissolve or dissociate in water; they increase the concentration of H= ions in water solutions
true/ false: concentration of OH- ions increases when bases dissolve or dissociate in water
Water w/ equal concentrations of these ions is....
neutral ; pH 7
pH lower than 7 =
higher concentration of H + ions = acids
pH higher than 7
lower concentration of H+ ions =bases
Acids and bases react to form =
water and a salt (ionic compound)
function of carbs
the primary source of energy for cellular respiration (provides ATP); doesn't provide as much energy as fats because of their hydrophilic groups, easily dissolvable in water.
carbs are a ...
single chain of carbon atoms to which hydroxyl groups are attached; one carbon is double bonded to oxygen to form a carbonyl group