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Viruses, Immune system, vaccines

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vaccine
substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity
Antiviral
Substance given to make a viral replication and entrance into the host cell ineffective
Live Attenuated Vaccine
weakened live virus
Examples of Attenuated Viruses
Chickenpox vaccine
Inactivated vaccines
Pathogen has been completely killed. Frequently requires boosters.
Examples of Inactivated vaccines
Polio virus
subunit vaccines
Contain only parts of a virus or bacteria instead of the whole thing (like glycoproteins)
Examples of subunit vaccines
whooping cough
mRNA vaccines
Contains mRNA from the pathogen that codes for a specific glycoprotein which is created by the host's cells and stimulated an immune response.
Example of an mRna vaccine
COVID -19 vaccine
Vector vaccine
a vaccine made by inserting genes from a pathogenic virus into a relatively harmless carrier virus like the adenovirus
Examples of vectors used for the Vector vaccine
Adenoviruses and herpes viruses
Edward Jenner
Developed a vaccine for smallpox in 1796
Memory cells
Long lived WBC, Contains record of the past infection
Mast cells
Key players in the inflammatory response, Release histamines to alert the body
Antigens
Pieces of foreign substances, prompts the production of antibodies
Antibodies
Protein produced by B cells, attached to the antigen to signal invader has been located
B cells
Creates antibodies, Created in the Bone Marrow
CD4 receptor
Only Helper t cells have it, allows HIV to attach
MHC 1
Most cells have them and signal all is well, like the American flag
MHC 2
Only Phagocytes have them, like Texas flag
CH8 receptor
Only in Cytotoxic cells, Neighborhood police
Innate Immune system
Nonspecific, Everyone is the Enemy
3rd line of defense
Specific (targets specific invaders), Adaptive immune response
1st line of defense
Skin, mucus, acids and bacteria, Keeps all invaders out
2nd line of defense
Mast cells and Phagocytes, Release pyrogens to heat up and histamines to grab
Natural killer cells
Kills cells that are cancerous, Recognize cells without MHC 1
Neutrophils
Patrol the body for invaders, part of the nonspecific response since they are "neutral"
Macrophages
Collects antigens in certain sites, BIG eaters of any invader
Dendritic cells
Goes between for the innate and Adaptive Immune system, Door dash
Cytotoxic T cells
Recognize and Kill infected cells, release perforins to poke out the infected cells
Helper T cell
Calls of help
Lytic Cycle
In this type of replication, many copies of the virus are created very quickly and results in the destruction of the host cell.
Lysogenic Cycle
This type of replication allows the virus to replicate many times (when the host replicates) without immediately killing the host
Capsid
the outer covering of protein surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus
Lipid Envelope
Contains lipids and proteins that enclose the Core. Originates from a host’s plasma membrane during the budding process
Collar (neck)
Connects the head to the tail of the phage.
Tail Fibers
Projections from the baseplate that attach to the host’s surface
Sheath (tail)
External contractile envelope that wraps around the tail tube. It contracts to inject the DNA into the host.
Base Plate
Contains proteins that attach to and punctures the surface of the host.
Provirus
cDNA copy of the RNA genome of a retrovirus; the genetic material of a virus as incorporated into and able to replicate with the genome of a host cell
Mitosis
How the lysogenic cycle spreads its DNA
DNA Replication
How bacteriophage genes are expressed in the lytic cycle.
Interferons
antiviral agents produced by virus-infected cells and can fight tumors. They protect non-infected cells from further viral infections by creating cytokine barriers
interleukin
any of several lymphokines that promote macrophages and killer T cells and B cells and other components of the immune system. Helps them divide and grow faster.
lymphokines
a non-immunoglobulin polypeptide substance synthesized mainly by T cells that affects the function of other cells. It may either enhance or suppress an immune response
Perforins
involved in the process of cell destruction (cytolysis) and the regulation of the immune system. Found in T-cells and Natural Killer T-cells.