Science 2.1 "How Are Plants Classified?"

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27 Terms
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vascular system
it moves water + nutrients from one part of this type of system to another by the processes of diffusion + osmosis
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it transports water + inorganic nutrients, such as nitrogen + minerals, from the roots to the rest of the plant
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it transports the food, that the plant makes, to all the cells, including its roots
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nonvascular plants
- plants without a vascular system to move water + nutrients (no xylem/phloem) - absorbs water + nutrients instead (through diffusion + osmosis) - tend to live in damp environments - no vascular tissue to support plant (so they are usually only 2-3cm) ex: moss, liverwort
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- vascular plants (mostly trees) that produce seeds that aren't enclosed in fleshy fruits - these structures in pollination become eggs in female cones + are fertilized by the sperm in pollen from the males cone from tree branches - after fertilization, the female cone falls to the ground so the seeds can be deposited in the soil
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vascular plants that prouduce seeds in the ovaries of flowers - some seed bearing plants have flowers that contain both female + male parts; they fertilize their own gametes (egg + sperm) - other plants have separate female + male parts; they have to reproduce through pollinators (bees/butterflies) that carry pollen from male flower to female flower + have the female egg fertilized by the sperm in male pollen - once gamete is fertilized, the plant develops fruit to protect the growing seed
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- a reproductive cell that can develop into a new individual without being fertilized - used for reproduction if plants don’t use seeds - in non-vascular (ex: moss) + vascular plants (ex: fern) - single-celled -small and can be blown in the wind or carried by something (animal) to another location - it can survive poor condition + will produce organisms when conditions are right
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- term means, "spore plant" - it is the form of a plant that produces spores during one part of the two-part reproduction cycle - the dominant stage of vascular plant life cycle
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- means "gamete plant" -it is a generation of plants that produce gametes -it is the form of a plant that develops from a spore in the second part of the two-part reproduction cycle -it is the dominant stage of nonvascular plant life cycle
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a male (sperm) or female (egg) reproductive cell
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-it is formed when sperm and eggs are gametes, and they unite. -this then later develops into an embryo
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the reproductive structures of the sporophyte -it is often found on the underside of a fern
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the leaf of a fern
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the structures on each sorus that produce spores
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domain Eukarya
has multicellular organisms like kingdom Protista, Fungi, Animalia, + Plantae
two main characteristics
- based on how plants are classified: if they have vascular tissue or seeds
ways of transporting nutrients
1. through the vascular system: plants w/ vascular tissue 2. through the non-vascular system: plants w/ out vascular tissue
vascular plant
- has vascular tissue - use xylem + phloem to move nutrients + materials from roots, stems, leaves + back - use diffusion + osmosis - can grow to a great height due to vascular tissues support (ex: North America Redwoods more than 100 meters)
- needs nutrients to live (like all living organisms) - they rely on diffusion + osmosis to absorb water + nutrients -produce food through photosynthesis
- the natural tendency of molecules to move from an area of of great concentration to an area of lesser concentration - method used when gases exchange during photosynthesis
- water being diffused across a semipermeable membrane (plant cell) - during this process, only water moves across the membrane - water moved both ways across membrane until concentration of other substances are the same - process is in work when roots absorb water + when the plant moves water upward to the rest of its structures
method of reproduction
vascular plants that produce through: 1. gymnosperms 2. angiosperms plants are classified by these methods
gymnosperm examples
pine + cedar trees, shrubs, pygmy pine, Morman tea bush
alternation of generations
the two-phased reproduction cycle progess in all plants, where it alernates between a spore (sporophyte) + a gamete (gametophyte) 1: the plant reproduces spores (sporophyte generation) 2: the spores develop into a new plant (gametophyte generation) + produce gametes (egg + sperm) that unite, creating a zygote which then becomes an embryo -the embryo will become a sporophyte + the cycle will start over again (cycle is different for vascular + non-vascular plants
alternation of generations in mosses
gametophyte stage is the dominant stage in non-vascular plants: 1. mature gametophyte produces gametes (egg + sperm) 2. sperm swims in water to egg + combine to form a zygote which develops into a sporophyte plant 3. sporophyte plant grows out of gametophyte plant 4. spore that grows at the end of a thin stalk gets enclosed in a capsule + is released when matured 5. spores fall on ground + germinates to create a protonema which will turn to a gametophyte plant (and the cycle restarts)
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angiosperm examples
marigold, oranges, water lillies
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alternation of generations in a fern
sporophyte stage is the dominant stage in vascular plants: 1. reproductive structures (sori) of sporophyte located on the frond (leaf of a fern) contain sporangia that produce spores that fall on the ground 2. spores germinate when conditions are right + become a prothallus (a gametophyte plant) 3. gametophyte plant produces the male + female reproductive structures (egg + sperm). sperm swims to fertilize the egg + become a zygote, which becomes a sporophyte plant 4. tiny sporophyte grows + develops fronds + a rhizome (underground stem). when fronds are mature, the sori release spores (and the cycle restarts)