Unit 3 - MWH

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40 Terms
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Silk Road
A series of trade routes that linked China to the West.
Arabian Camel
An important way of transportation on the Silk road and Trans-Saharan trade routes for thousands of years
Indian Ocean Trade
connected to Europe, Africa, and China.; worlds richest maritime trading network and an area of rapid Muslim expansion.
monsoon winds
seasonal wind in India, the winter monsoon brings hot, dry weather and the summer monsoon brings rain.
Ibn Battuta
(1304-1369) Morrocan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan. His writings gave a glimpse into the world of that time period.
Black Death/Bubonic Plague
This killed between one-third and two-thirds of the population in less than five years. The epidemic spanned from China to England to North Africa, transmitted along the Silk Road and other trade routes.
a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time.
The Renaissance
"rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Sonnets to Laura
was written by Francesco Petrarch, and it was comprised of 365 sonnets for Petrarch's love, Laura. Each one expresses his love for her; he wrote them in 1327
Medici Family
Ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art, controlled Florence for about 3 centuries
This city was once of hot spots of Renaissance culture in the 1400s,
a person who gives financial or other support to a person, organization, cause, or activity
Leonardo da Vinci
A well known Italian Renaissance artist, architect, musician, mathemetician, engineer, and scientist. Known for the Mona Lisa.
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
The Prince
Written by machiavelli, described that power is more important, "better to be feared than loved"
a thriving trading region where the northern Renaissance began
Albrecht Durer
Famous Northern Renaissance artist, he often used woodcutting along with Italian Renaissance techniques like proportion, perspective and modeling.
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Executed by Henry VIII for not compromising his religious beliefs.
William Shakespeare
(1564 - 1616) English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet.
Johannes Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Protestant Reformation
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
A pardon given by the Roman Catholic Church in return for repentance for sins
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Charles V
This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
95 Theses
It was nailed to a church door in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517 and is widely seen as being the catalyst that started the Protestant Reformation. It contained Luther's list of accusations against the Roman Catholic Church.
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
John Calvin
1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.
Swiss city-state which became a Calvinist theocracy in the 1500s; today a major city in Switzerland
Henry VIII
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Elizabeth I
(1533-1603) Queen of England and Ireland between 1558 and 1603. She was an absolute monarch and is considered to be one of the most successful rulers of all time.
Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary)
Took the English throne in 1553. She was the oldest daughter of Henry VIII, part of the Tudor family, and a devoted Catholic. Married to Philip II of Spain. Helped lead Counter-Reformation against Protestantism. Her goal was to return Britain to the Catholic Church. Nicknamed Bloody Mary because of the 300 Protestants she killed during her reign. Died with no heirs to the throne.
The Church of England
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
The Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.