Biology Midterm Prep

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The study guide for 9th grade bio. (Mrs. Z's class)

79 Terms
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An educated guess made before research is done
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data. An educated guess backed up by data.
father of taxonomy and binomial nomenclature
binomial nomenclature
Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name: Genus species
Correctly list the levels of biological organization.
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
covalent bond
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
non polar covalent bond
equal sharing of electrons
polar covalent bond
unequal sharing of electrons (ex. water)
How do water molecules bond?
hydrogen bond: slightly negative oxygen bond to slightly positive hydrogen.
water molecules sticking to each other
water molecules sticking to other surfaces
surface tension
because of cohesive nature (due to hydrogen bonding) of its molecules water molecules resist external forces: the property that allows certain bugs to walk on water
capillary action
tendency of water to rise or get pulled up due to cohesion/adhesion: water moving up a plant stem
the substance that is dissolved
the substance in which the solute dissolves
a mixture that forms when one substance dissolves another
organic compounds
compounds that contain carbon
What's is the significance of carbon?
It's found in all living things and essential to life on earth.
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur
storage form of glucose in animals
storage form of glucose in plants
storage form of glucose in cell walls
saturated fatty acid
a fatty acid chain with single hydrogen bonds: solid at room temp
unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid chain with double hydrogen bonds: liquid at room temp.
a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule: polar head and nonpolar tail
carb monomer
carb polymer
carb function
short term energy storage and structure
protein monomer
amino acids
protein polymer
protein function
structure, communication, membrane transport, catalysis, recognition and protection, movement, cell adhesion
lipid monomer
fatty acid
lipid function
long term energy storage and insulation
nucleic acid monomer
nucleic acid polymer
nucleic acid function
store and transmit genetic info
Why are cells so small?
smaller cells have more surface area making it easier to pass oxygen, nutrients and waste materials
cell theory
idea that; 1. all living things are composed of cells 2. cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things 3. new cells are produced from existing cells
control center of the cell
cell wall
strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in plant cells
golgi body
structure in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell: UPS of the cell
makes proteins
endoplasmic reticulum
a cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another (highway system of the cell)
powerhouse of the cell
site of photosynthesis
strength and support, movement of cellular structures and materials
small membrane sacs that specialize in moving products into, out of, and within a cell
plasma membrane
selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells
fluid mosaic model
properties of phospholipid bilayer
1. determines passive permeability of membranes (diffusion) 2. lipid soluble molecules permeate or diffuse through phospholipid bilayer easily 3. water soluble (hydrophilic) molecules do not 4. allows small polar molecules in
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
facillitated diffusion
process that moves materials from high to low concentration with the help of protein channels; does not require energy
diffusion of water
active transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
selectively permeable membrane
membrane that allows some substances to pass more easily than others and blocks the passage of some substances altogether
hypotonic solution
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution (more water)
hypertonic solution
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution (less water)
isotonic solution
a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
What organic molecules are enzymes made of?
What do enzymes do?
speed up chemical reactions and lower activation energy: they catalyze reactions, not start them
adenosine triphosphate, energy used in cell
ATP has 3 phosphate groups (more energy) and ADP has two phosphate groups.
Leaf Layer Diagram
Chloroplast Diagram
also includes strands of DNA and ribosomes: proof of endosymbiotic theory
What is the relationship between location of chloroplasts in the leaf and photosynthesis?
The mesophyll palisade has more chloroplasts allowing for more photosynthesis. This layer is closer to the top of the cell.
the waxy, waterproof layer that covers the leaves and stems of most plants.
the tissue in the interior of the leaf
spongy mesophyll
- layer of loose tissue found beneath the palisade mesophyll in a leaf - less photosynthesis is done here (less chloroplasts) - air pockets allow for respiration
palisade mesophyll
- layer of tightly packed cells under the upper epidermis of a leaf - more photosynthesis is done here (morechloroplasts)
gaurd cells and stomata
pairs of cells that surround stomata and control oppening and closing
a tissue made up of a single layer of cells which covers the top and bottom of a leaf
a flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy: light dependent reaction done here
stack of thylakoids
What colors are - chlorophyll a - chlorophyll b - xanthophyll - carotene - anthocyanin
- chlorophyll a: blue-green - chlorophyll b: yellow-green - xanthophyll: yellow - carotene: yellow to orange - anthocyanin: blue, red, purple
Why do leaves change color in the fall?
The chlorophyll breaks down, the green color disappears, and the yellow to orange colors become visible.
equation for photosynthesis
6CO2 (carbon dioxide)+ 6H2O (water) + energy = C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 (oxygen)
What factors affect photosynthesis?
1. temperature 2. light intensity 3. the availability of water.
Calvin Cycle
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
Light Dependent Reaction
reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH