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Isomorphic Materials
Materials that can contain ALTERNATIVE ATOMS within the SAME basic crystal structure
Isomorphic Replacement
- Replacement of 1 chemical element by another in a crystalline material - crystal structure stays the same but physical properties vary
minerals exhibit isomorphism when then have identical external forms but differ chemically
4 Isomorphic groups
1. Garnet Group 2. Feldspar Group 3. Olivine Group 4. Tourmaline
2 groups in garnet family
1. Pyralspite 2. Ugrandite
3 garnet species in the Pyralspite Group
1. Pyrope 2. Almandine 3. Spessartine - "Pyr" = greek for fire! - Aluminum garnets
3 garnet species in the Ugrandite Group
1. Uvarovite 2. Grossular 3. Andradite - Calcium garnets!
Pyralspite Group physical properties
- pure red to orange-red colours - "Pyr" = greek for fire! - Aluminum garnets (Al as Y element)
Ugrandite Group physical properties
- brown, yellow, green colous - Calcium garnets! (Ca as X element)
2 Feldspar Families
1. Alkali Feldspar 2. Plagioclase Feldspar
Distinguishing Element in Alkali Feldspar
Potassium (K) - potassium added into chemical formula of these stones
3 feldspar species in Alkali Feldspar Family
1. Anorthoclase 2. Sanidine/ Orthoclase, Moonstone 3. Microline Amazonite
6 feldspar species in Plagioclase Feldspar Family
1. Albite 2. Oligoclase 3. Andesine 4. Labradorite 5. Bytownite 6. Anorthite
2 species in Olivine Group
1. Forsterite 2. Fayalite