Chapter 6 Bones

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strong connective tissue that supports the body and is softer and more flexible than bones
Types of skeletal cartilage
Hyaline Cartilages Elastic Cartilages Fibrocartilages
What are the different types of Hyaline Cartilages?
articular cartilages costal cartilages respiratory cartilages nasal cartilages
Articular cartilages
a Hyaline Cartilage; covers ends of most bones at movable joints
Costal cartilages
a Hyaline Cartilage; connects ribs and sternum
respiratory cartilage
a Hyaline Cartilage; forms skeleton of larynx (voice box), and reinforces other respiratory passageways.
Nasal cartilages
a Hyaline Cartilage; (external nose), the hard substance supporting the nose
Elastic cartilages
contain more stretchy elastic fibers, able to stand up to repeated bending. Found in external ear and the epiglottis (flap that bends to cover the opening of the larynx each time we swallow)
sites that are subjected to heavy pressure and stretch, provide support, ex. menisci of knee, pubic, and disks between verebrae
Appositional Growth
"Growth from outside" Secretion of new matrix against the external face of the existing cartilage tissue.
Interstitial growth
"Growth from Inside" The lacunae-bound chondrocytes divide and screte new matrix expanding the cartilage from within.
Bones of the Skeleton are divided in what two parts?
Axial and Appendicular
Axial Skeleton
Relating to head, neck, and trunk, the axis of the body
relating to the limbs and their attachments to the axis
Bone shapes
long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid, and sutural.
Long Bones
Bones that are longer than wide; bones of arm and legs, Humerous, Radius, Ulna, Femur, Fibula and Tibia
Short Bones
bones of wrists and ankles; cube-shaped bones having a spongy core, with limited movement
Sesamoid Bones
Type of Short Bone; round bones found near joints (ex. patella)
Flat Bones
thin, flattened, and usually curved; bones of ribs, shoulder blades, pelvis and skull
Irregular Bones
don't fit into any other category (vertebrae and hip bones)
Bone functions
support, protection, storage, movement, muscle attachment, protection & support, blood cell production, storage of minerals
Bone Markings
reveals where muscles, tendons and ligaments were attached and where blood vessels and nerves passed
Structure of Long bones
(1) Diaphysis (2) Epiphyses (3) Metaphyses (4) Articular Cartilage (5) Periosteum (6) Medullary Cavity (7) Endosteum
Shaft or middle region of long bone that contains layer of spongy bone
the end of a long bone, initially separated from the main bone by a layer of cartilage that eventually ossifies so the parts become fused
growth zone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis during development of a long bone
Articular Cartilage
hyaline cartilage that covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints
Outer most fibrous layer that supplies blood and nerves to the bone
Medullary Cavity
cavity within the shaft of the long bones; filled with yellow bone marrow
vascular membrane (osteoclasts) that lines the inner surface of long bones; has few osteblasts
Compact Bone Texture
Dense outer bone layer, protective hard bone tissue surrounding every bone; composed of repeating units of Osteon systems; also called Lamellar Bone
Spongy Bone Texture
Internal to Bone layer; composed of small trabeculae of bones and lots of open space filled with Red Marrow, so gases may move around(circulate). gases are here because of photosynthesis and cellular respiration
Red Marrow
bone marrow of children and some adult bones that is required for the formation of red blood cells
Types of Bone cells
1. Osteogenic 2. Osteoblast 3. Osteocyte 4. Osteoclast
stem cells in Periosteum and Endosteum; undergo cell division; the resulting cells develop into osteoblasts
a cell from which bone develops
a mature bone tissue cell that maintains the daily activities of bone
Giant cell that functions in the breakdown and reabsorption of bone tissue
bone matrix
thin sheets (lamella) made up of: calcium salts, phosphate, collagen; hard substance that surrounds living bone cells
Concentric rings (layers) made up of groups of hollow tubes of bone matrix
Bone remodeling
The ongoing replacement of old bone tissue by new bone tissue, influenced by: 1. Exercise 2. Diet 3. Hormonal Influence 4. Miscellaneous
Paget's Disease
a bone disease of unknown cause characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation
abnormal softening of bones caused by deficiencies of phosphorus or calcium or vitamin D
childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus (can be cured by sunlight exposure, or drinking vitamin d milk)
loss of calcium in the bones, usually with age; a condition in which the body's bones become weak and break easily ; treatment and prevention by enough calcium and excersize
Intramembranous ossification
formation of flat bones of the skull and mandible
Bone Remodeling
Old bone cells are removed by osteoclasts. This occurs in all bone, responsible for growth, change in shape, adjustment to stress, repair, and ion adjustment.
production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow
the organic liquid of the matrix of bone
Intersitial vs circumferential lamella
Interstitial fill the space between osteons circumferential go around the bone
composition of bone
organic- cells, osteoid inorganic- hydroxyapatites (65%)
smaller channels leading out from the osteons
inside layer of the bone
thin plates of spongy bone
Bone Markings
Projection Depression opening
Types of bone
long short flat irregular
stages of bone development
resting zone proliferation hypertrophic calcification ossification
Hormonal Regulation
growth hormone thyroid hormone testosterone/estrogen
Bone remodelling
happens completely every 3-4 years for spongy 8-10 for compact occurs at bone deposit 5-7 in of bone replaced weekly
Wolf's Law
bones change based on stress
nondisplaced/displaced complete/incomplete compound/simple