bio water cycles

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guard cells

changes its shape to open & close the stomata


brings water from roots up to where photosynthesis takes place


takes extra, unneeded glucose & moves it to the sink


CO2 enters & oxygen and water come out through here


made up of phloem & xylem (vascular bundle)


waxy, NON-LIVING layer that waterproofs the leaf & protects plant from drying out

lower epidermis

layer of cells produces cuticle on bottom of leaf

spongy layer of mesophyll

has big open air spaces, does some photosynthesis

palisades layer of mesophyll

tightly packed layer of cells where most of photosynthesis takes place

upper epidermis

layer of cells that produces cuticle on top of leaf

air spaces

allows the movement of CO2 up from palisades & allows oxygen to leave the leaf

what does cycling maintain in the enviornment?


4 processes the water cycle involves

evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation


happens when heat changes water from a liquid to a gas


happens when water evaporates from the leaves of plants - depends on the properties of water

what happens as moist air rises?

it cools


the process by which water vapor turns into a liquid forming clouds


comes in the form of rain, snow, sleet, hail, or fog & it falls when the water drops become heavy


when water runs down hills & mountains into bodies of water


when water soaks into the soil & collects as groundwater. Helps to build the water table

what determines the amt of water the atmosphere can hold?

temp & air pressure

how does the water cycle help the earth

it prevents large changes in global temperatures

what do the carbon & oxygen cycles use?

they’re interdependent on each other and use respiration to produce oxygen & photosynthesis to produce CO2

what is the oxygen produced in photosynthesis?

a waste product & made from water, not CO2

what are DNA & RNA?

nucleic acids



what are carbon & hydrogen?

organic compounds


release O2 into the atmosphere by photosynthesis

who needs oxygen?

all life with a mitochondria absorbs it to use during cellular respiration EXCEPT some prokaryotes

why do living organisms need Carbon?

to create organic molecules / macromolecules


absorb CO2 from the atmosphere during photosynthesis & release CO2 during cellular respiration


intake oxygen when they feed & move it up the food chain

output CO2 during cellular respiration


intake CO2 when they feed on organic matter

return organic molecules to the soil during decomposition


release CO2 into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned for energy

4 main carbon reservoirs in BIOSPHERE

Atmosphere - as CO2 gas

Ocean - as dissolved CO2 gas

Land - in organisms, rocks, soil

Underground - as coal & fossil fuels & calcium carbonate in rocks

Where does CO2 in atmosphere come from?

-volcanic activity

-human activity (burning fossil fuels)

-cellular respiration


how do plants absorb water

through their roots, using capillary action & evaporation to move water to the leaves

what is transpiration aka?


what does high humidity do to transpiration & why?

slows down transpiration because it slows the movement of water to roots

what does increased light do?

increases photosynthesis, increasing transpiration

what happens during droughts?

the stoma close so transpiration stops, making photosynthesis stop or slow

absorption occurs at the…


cohesion & adhesion happens in the…


transpiration takes place in the…

stoma of the leaves

explain process of water movement in plants

water is absorbed through the roots and brought up to the leaves through capillary action

exits through transpiration in the stoma of the leaves