[MICRO20] Lec 5: Strategies of Microbial Control (Flashcards)

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30 Terms
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Medically important entities and microorganisms that survive in temperatures that also support human life
6.5 to 7.5
Optimum pH level for bacterial growth
Obligate aerobe
Organisms, such as bacteria, that only grow in an aerobic environment.
Obligate anaerobe
Oxygen is toxic to their survival. These are microorganisms killed by normal atmospheric concentrations of oxygen.
This is done for the removal or destruction of all living microorganisms.
This is done for the destruction of vegetative (non-endospore-forming) pathogens on inanimate objects.
This is done for the destruction of vegetative (non-endospore-forming) pathogens on living tissue
Degerming or degermation
This is done for the removal of microbes from a limited area
This is done to lower microbial counts to safe public health levels and minimize the chances of disease transmission from one user to another.
1. Number of microbes 2. Environmental influences 3. Time of exposure 4. Microbial characteristics
The rate of microbial death is affected by which factors
A process wherein steam at a pressure of about 15 psi (121 degrees C) will kill all organisms (but not prions) and their endospores in about 15 minutes.
A process applied to more viscous material and to food with high fat content
Type of Physical method that is used to sterilize heat-sensitive materials. For example: High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters.
Desiccation specifically Lyophilization or freeze-drying
A process in which water is removed from a product after it is frozen and placed under a vacuum.
UV light
Type of nonionizing radiation that damages the DNA of exposed cells by causing bonds to form between adjacent pyrimidine bases, usually thymidines, in DNA chains.
Diffusion method
Used to know if the chemicals are able to inhibit microbial growth. Petri dishes are inoculated with bacteria, together with discs that have chemicals in them.
Bacterial spores
These microorganisms were known to be resistant because they have tested different disinfectants and yet most of them had no effects on the bacterial spores.
- Can injure lipid-containing plasma membranes - Remain active in the presence of organic compounds - Persist for long periods after application - These days, we rarely use phenols as it irritates the skin and has a disagreeable odor. The information above refers to what?
Joseph Lister
The use of phenols as an antiseptic was first done by _______, a British surgeon. He used a phenolic compound during his surgery, in wounds, and other surgical site infections.
1% silver nitrate
This metal was historically used to prevent the occurrence of neonatal conjunctivitis caused by gonorrhea.
It is called the solution of formaldehyde and water.
Ethylene oxide
It is a chemical sterilizer that kills all microbes and endospores but requires a lengthy exposure period of several hours.
Hydrogen peroxide
Not a good antiseptic for open wounds (only forms bubbles when used on skin due Staphylococcus aureus on the skin acting on the hydrogen peroxide). It is, however, effective in disinfecting inanimate objects.
Thin, slimy layer encasing bacteria that adheres to a surface.
Quorum sensing
Cell-to-cell chemical communication, allows bacteria to coordinate their activity and group together into communities
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
It is strongly bactericidal against gram-positive bacteria and less active against gram-negative bacteria.
Benzoyl Peroxide
Established anti-acne because it has action towards the microbial agent that contributes in formation of acne which is Propionibacterium acnes.
Bacteria that use quorum sensing produce and secrete a signaling chemical called an ______.
This type of halogen impairs protein synthesis. It also alters cell membranes by forming complexes with amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids.
TRUE OR FALSE No single disinfectant is appropriate for all circumstances.