Earth Systems Exam 1: Chapters 1-5

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continental drift
the gradual movement and formation of continents: Alfred Wegener
the vertical movement of heat or other properties by massive motion within the atmosphere
When rock cools and solidifies, their magnetic alignment is frozen into place, creating permanent magnetic records.
Wadati-Benioff zones
The creation of ocean trenches and island arcs are linked to seismic activity and tectonic plate movement.
Outermost chemical layer of the earth:
Middle chemical layer of the crust:
Innermost chemical layer of the crust:
outermost physical layer of the crust:
Lithosphere: oceanic and continental
second physical layer of the crust:
third physical layer of the crust:
Mesosphere: lower mantle
4th and 5th physical layers of the crust:
Inner and Outer core: outer core is the only entirely liquid layer of the earth
Convergent boundaries
high density plate pushed beneath a more buoyant plate: Subduction. Oceanic-Continental and Oceanic-Oceanic.
Divergent Boundaries
Creates mid-ocean ridges and continental rift zones.
Transform Boundaries
Mostly found around mid-ocean ridges, lithosphere boundaries slide past each other.
The Wilson cycle
Outlines ongoing origin and breakup of super continents. 3 theories: The ridge-pull hypothesis, Slab-pull (best hypothesis today), and gravitational sliding.
an area in lithospheric plates where molten magma breaks through and creates a volcanic center, islands in ocean, and mountains on land.
Classic definition of a mineral
1: naturally occurring 2: inorganic 3: solid at room temp. 4: regular crystal structure 5: defined chemical composition
substance that contains one or more minerals/mineraloids. 3 Types: igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic.
Formation of minerals
1. Precipitation directly from a water solution with a temperature change. 2. Crystallization from magma with a temperature change 3. Biological precipitation by the action of organisms.
The Olivine Family
Silicate minerals, primary mineral in mantle rock. Solidifies into igneous rock, a mafic material.
The Pyroxene Family
Silicate mineral: another mafic mineral, found in both igneous and metamorphic rocks.
The Amophibole Family
Silicate mineral: found in both igneous and metamorphic rocks, have a long-bladed crystal habit.
Sheet Silicates
Silicate mineral: micas and clays, quartz and feldspar very abundant
Carbonates and phosphates
Non- Silicate minerals, also referred to as salts
Minerals are ID'ed by:
luster, color, streak, hardness, crystal habit, cleavage, fracture, and special properties like effervescence.
Igneous rocks are classified by:
Texture: coarse-grained (phaneritic), fine-grained (apantic), or mixed (porphyritic). Composition
The different groups of igneous rock composition:
1: felsic 2: intermediate 3: mafic 4: ultramafic
Bowen's Reaction Series
describes the temperatures at which minerals crystallize and melt. All minerals will crystallize by 700 C and melt by 1,250 C.
What are the components of magma and lava?
melt, solids, and volatiles (gaseous components)
melting point of rock at given pressure.
Where does most volcanism occur on Earth?
On the ocean floor along mid-ocean ridges
What are the unique properties of water?
Polarity, adhesion, and cohesion.
Mechanical weathering
physically breaks apart rock through pressure, temperature, freeze/thaw, plant/animal activity, and/or salt evaporation.
Chemical weathering
water, oxygen, and other reactants chemically degrade the mineral components of bedrock and turn them into water soluble ions through hydrosis, dissolution, oxidation, and/or erosion.
What is a soils characteristics determined by?
1. Mineralogy of parent material 2.topography 3.weathering 4.climate 5.organisms in the soil.
What are the main categories of sedimentary rocks?
Clastic (detrial) and Chemical
How does Lithification turn sediment into rock?
Decomposition, compaction, and cementation
Chemical sedimentary rocks
formed by processes that do not directly involve mechanical weathering and erosion
Inorganic sedimentary rocks
made of minerals precipitated from ions dissolved in solution, created without aid of living organisms
Biochemical sedimentary rocks
formed from aquatic shells and bodies, usually from organic material lithified underwater.
Classification of sedimentary rocks
1: Determine makeup 2: Grain size 3: Rock description 4: Rock name
Sedimentary Structures
Visible textures/arrangements of sediments within a rock. Ex: bedding planes, graded bedding, plane beds, ripples, dunes, anti dunes, bioturbation, mud cracks.
Marine Depositional Environment
completely submerged in seawater.
Continental Slope Depositional Environment
not common in rock record: lower and upper slope on beach
Littoral zone Depositional Environment
The beach: tidal flats, reefs, lagoons, deltas
Terrestrial Depositional Environment
Diverse: Fluvial, Alluvial, Glacial
classify sedimentary rocks by physical, chemical, and biological properties.
The four earth systems
Geosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere, and Atmosphere
The types of boundaries between plates
divergent: oceanic spreading center, cont. drift zones. convergent: oceanic-continent, continent-continent, oceanic-oceanic. transform: continental transform fault, mid ocean ridge transform fault.
Intrusive rock
Plutonic, forms within earth's interior and cools within the earth, forming large crystal sizes
Extrusive rock
Volcanic, forms outside of earths interior, creating small crystal sizes
Textures of Igneous rock
pegmatic, phaneritic, aphantic, glassy, porphyritic, vesicular, and pyroclastic (slow to fast cooling)