Chapter 10 - Communication

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51 Terms
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What is Communication?
The process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver.
What is the Simple Model of Communication?
Sender encodes thoughts 🡢 Receiver decodes message
What is Effective Communication?
Occurs when the right people receive the right information in a timely manner.
What is the Chain of Command?
Lines of authority and formal reporting relationships.
Problems w/ Chains of Command
• Impedes informal communication • Slows down info transfer • Message gets filtered/watered down
What is Voice?
The constructive expression of disagreement or concern about the work unit or organizational practices.
What is Silence?
Opposite of voice, refers to the withholding of relevant information. Leads to higher stress and self-censorship.
What is the Mum Effect?
The tendency to avoid communicating unfavorable news to others.
What is the Grapevine?
An organization's informal communication network
Participants of The Grapevine - Personality
○ Extroverts pass on more information than introverts ○ Those who lack self-esteem might pass on info that gives personal advantage
Participants of The Grapevine - Location
○ Occupants of workstations that receive a lot of traffic transmit more info ○ People who move through the organization also transmit more info
What are some pros of The Grapevine?
Provides inexpensive info, serves as an alternate source of power, builds trust among members
What are some cons of The Grapevine?
Spreads rumors, which can damage the org
What is Jargon?
Specialized language used by job holders or members of particular occupations/organizations
What is Humor?
Creates positive emotions that facilitate attention, understanding, and message acceptance
What is Non-Verbal Communication?
The transmission of messages by some medium other than speech or writing.
What is Body Language?
Non-verbal communication by means of a sender's bodily motions, facial expressions, or physical location.
Body Language - Interest
Senders direct torso towards receiver, maintain eye contact, lean forward
Body Language - High Status
Senders are relaxed, casual, not nervous
Office Décor + Communication
People feel more welcomed in open spaces, and can judge OCEAN traits from your office décor
Clothing + Communication
Clothing sends signals about competence, seriousness, and promotability; prone to stereotypes
What is the Red Sneakers Effect?
Refers to the tendency for intentional dress code nonconformity to signal status and competence.
True or False - Girls see conversations as a way to develop networks of connection & intimacy
True or False - Boys see conversations as a way to achieve status and independence
Non-Verbal Communication & Culture - Facial Expressions
Some collectivist cultures tend to match the sender's emotions, be careful when judging other's emotions
Non-Verbal Communication & Culture - Gestures
Generally not cross-cultural, as they involve symbolism that isn't shared
Non-Verbal Communication & Culture - Gaze
Some cultures avoid the sender's gaze as a sign of respect, in others its disrespectful
Non-Verbal Communication & Culture - Touch
Some cultures touch eachother as an adjunct to conversations, others keep distance
What is Cultural Context?
The level of influence context has in communication, across cultures.
How do Low-Context cultures communicate?
- Less aware of non-verbal cues, environment, and situation - Prefer explicit directions from knowledgeable sources - Knowledge is a commodity - Lack well-developed networks
How do High-Context cultures communicate?
- Non-verbal cues are important - Physical context relied upon for information - Maintain extensive information networks
What is Information Richness?
The potential information-carrying capacity of a communication medium.
What are the 2 Dimensions of Information Richness?
1. Synchronicity 2. Cue Reception
What is Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC)?
Forms of communication that rely on digital technology to facilitate information exchange.
Pros of Social Media
• Aids in sharing knowledge • Facilitates collaboration + voice • Breaks down status barriers
Cons of Social Media
• Addicting, leads to cyberloafing • Can lead to cyberbullying
What is Enterprise Social Media?
A private work-related social media platform that is accessible only by organizational members.
What is Congruence?
Occurs when a person’s words, thoughts, feelings, and actions all contain the same message.
5 Active Listening Techniques
• Body Language • Paraphrase the Speaker • Show Empathy • Ask Questions • Wait Out Pauses
Active Listening Techniques - Body Language
Sit up, lean forward, and maintain eye contact with the sender
Active Listening Techniques - Paraphrase the Speaker
Reflect back on what the sender said, to show interest
Active Listening Techniques - Show Empathy
Show the sender you understand their feelings and perspective
Active Listening Techniques - Ask Questions
Have people repeat, clarify, or elaborate what they said
Active Listening Techniques - Wait Out Pauses
Do not feel pressured to talk during pauses, allow speaker to elaborate
Improving Communication - Employer Branding
○ Promoting a clear, consistent, positive image of the organization as an employer ○ Attracts new employees + reinforces commitment of existing employees ○ Conveys both tangible and symbolic aspects of the employment experience
Improving Communication - Provision of Explanations
○ Providing clear explanations for controversial policies + implementing them fairly ○ Adequate explanations are specific, detailed, and truthful ○ Requires rich communication medium, like announcement from CEO
Improving Communication - 360-Degree Feedback
○ Performance appraisal that uses the input of supervisors, employees, clients, customers, etc. ○ Employees are evaluated, but also evaluate their bosses, coworkers, and customers ○ Used for employee development rather than salary determination
Improving Communication - Employee Surveys
○ Anonymous survey, lets employees state their candid thoughts about organizational practices ○ Good employee surveys contain questions that appreciate employee concerns ○ Good employee surveys must also yield useful info, that the org can use to implement changes
Improving Communication - Suggestions Systems
○ Programs that enhance upwards communication by soliciting ideas from employees ○ Good programs reward employees for adopted suggestions, but paying can motivate secrecy ○ Management should provide feedback as to how suggestions are evaluated, improves fairness
Improving Communication - Corporate Hotlines
○ Hotlines can be valuable at times of crisis like strikes, storms, closures ○ Hotlines can be used as query systems employees can use to ask questions ○ Hotlines can be used to help employees report unethical or illegal behavior
Improving Communication - Corporate Webcasting
○ Constitutes a rich communication medium that can reach employees anywhere on earth ○ Allows for flexible information sessions, training programs, and new product introductions