Organic Compounds Essential to Functioning

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hydroxyl group
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Involved in dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions.
carboxyl group
A -COOH group, found in organic acids (fatty and amino acids)
Amino group (-NH2)
found within amino acids, building blocks of proteins
Methyl group (-CH3)
In an organic molecule, a carbon bonded to three hydrogens. Found in amino acids.
phosphate group
PO4 found in phospholipids and nucleotides
A very large organic molecule composed of many smaller molecules
a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
hydrated carbon; made up of CHO in a 1:2:1 ratio
A monomer of carbohydrate, simple sugar.
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Disacharrides are
two monosaccharides joined together
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides (starch, glycogen, cellulose)
Which body cells use glucose?
All, but neurons and RBC's use only glucose for fuel
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
an energy-rich compound made up of a single molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acid.
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton. Semi-solid at room temperature.
unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton. Liquid at room temperature.
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
A type of lipid based on cholesterol; includes testosterone and estrogen.
signaling molecule, help regulate blood pressure, sensitize nerves to pain
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
amino acid structure
hydrogen atom, a carboxyl group, amine group, and R group
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building block of protein
an amino acid
primary protein structure
sequence of a chain of amino acids
secondary protein structure
Alpha helix, beta pleated sheets held together by hydrogen bonds.
tertiary structure of protein
protein structure is formed when the twists and folds of the secondary structure fold again to from a larger 3D structure
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loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor
proteins that act as biological catalysts
A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme
Four organic macromolecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
A five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
A five-carbon sugar present in RNA
Nitrogenous bases in DNA
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
nitrogenous bases in RNA
adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
Base pairing in DNA
base pairing in RNA
A - U C - G
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work